16 Disney Heroines Chosen To Be “Doctor Who” Companions

Even the ladies of Disney can’t resist the call of a madman in a blue box. Artist Karen Hallion mostly leaves Doctor Who to your imagination.

#1 Tiana & Charlotte La bouff – The Princess & the Frog

#2 Snow White – Snow White

#3 Jasmine & Rajah – Aladdin

#4 Cinderella – Cinderella

#5 Belle – Beauty & the Beast

#6 Ariel – The Little Mermaid

#7 Snow White – Snow White

#8 Elsa – Frozen

#9 The Little Red Riding Hood

#10 Merida – Brave

#11 Rapunzel – Tangled

#12 Anna – Frozen

#13 Carl & Ellie – Up

#14 Aurora – Sleeping Beauty

#15 Mulan – Mulan

#16 Alice – Alice in Wonderland

 

FUN FACEBOOK STATISTICS

Facebook Fun Facts that will make your head spin round in 2017

Facebook Fun Facts

This crazy website is more engaging than you can imagine, read now:

  • More than 40 million small businesses have active pages pages
  • The like button has been pressed 1.13 trillion times.
  • As of January 2016, 100 million hours of video was watched on Facebook Daily.
  • The average time spent per visit is 20 minutes making the average monthly time spent to 600 minutes.
  • More than 83% of daily active users are outside the US and Canada the number has grown from 75% in the previous year which goes on to show the increased growth in rest of the world.
  • Percent of 18-34-year-old who check Facebook when they wake up is 48%.
  • The average number of pages, groups, and events a user is connected to is 80.
  • 350 Million photos are uploaded every day, with 14.58 million photo uploads per hour, 243,000 photo uploads per minute, and 4,000 photo uploads per second.
  • Every 20 Minutes, 1 million links are shared, 20 million friend requests are sent, and 3 million messages are sent.
  • 55 million status updates are made every day.
  • Facebook is available in 101 languages with over 300,000 users helping in translation.

Based on 2017.

 

Thought to take with you:

At 2.07 billion, Facebook has more monthly active users than WhatsApp (500 million), Twitter (284 million) and Instagram (200 million)—combined (Source: CNBC). Please note that this is no longer true. Instagram now has over 600 million users according to Instagram’s report December 21, 2016. The site continues to reign in popularity over other social media channels, but the competition is mounting.

To read all the statistics, read this article: Facebook Statistics 2017 Top 20 – Updated November 2017

Facebook Statistics 2017 Top 20 – Updated November 2017

facebook Statistics by Sunny Rabius Sunny for Marketing in Bangladesh

Facebook Statistics 2017 Top 20 – Updated November 2017

Facebook represents a huge potential market for your social media efforts, but it is becoming increasingly difficult to stand out from the crowd. The following Facebook statistics highlight some relevant Facebook facts and can ultimately help you to navigate it better, increasing your return on investment (ROI) and leading to greater marketing success.

According to SEC filing, for the first time, Facebook’s U.S. ad revenue will be larger than the biggest traditional media companies trailing only behind Google. Facebook released the third quarter 2017 results on November 1, 2017. We just updated our report as soon as these numbers were updated.

Total Number of Monthly Active Users:

2.01 billion

Last updated: 6/30/17


Total Number of Mobile Monthly Active Users:

1.66 billion

Last updated: 1/24/17


Total Number of Desktop Daily Active Users:

1.32 billion

Last updated: 6/30/17


Total number of Mobile Daily Active Users:

1.57 billion

Last updated: 6/24/17


 Facebook Statistics (Demographics)

Facebook-ex-lovers

Fun Facts

  • More than 40 million small businesses have active pages pages
  • The Facebook like button has been pressed 1.13 trillion times.
  • As of January 2016, 100 million hours of video was watched on Facebook Daily.
  • The average time spent on Facebook per visit is 20 minutes making the average monthly time spent to 600 minutes.
  • More than 83% of daily active users are outside the US and Canada the number has grown from 75% in the previous year which goes on to show the increased growth in rest of the world.
  • Percent of 18-34-year-old who check Facebook when they wake up is 48%.
  • The average number of pages, groups, and events a user is connected to is 80.
  • 350 Million photos are uploaded every day, with 14.58 million photo uploads per hour, 243,000 photo uploads per minute, and 4,000 photo uploads per second.
  • Every 20 Minutes, 1 million links are shared, 20 million friend requests are sent, and 3 million messages are sent.
  • 55 million status updates are made every day.
  • Facebook is available in 101 languages with over 300,000 users helping in translation.

Facebook Statistics Updated November 1, 2017

1. Worldwide, there are over 2.07 billion monthly active Facebook users for Q3 2017 (Facebook MAUs) which is a 16 percent increase year over year.

(Source: Facebook 11/01/17)

What this means for you: In case you had any lingering doubts, statistically, Facebook is too big to ignore.

2. There are 1.15 billion mobile daily active users (Mobile DAU) for December 2016, an increase of 23 percent year-over-year.

(Source: Facebook as of 2/01/17)

This is hugely significant and shows the dramatic growth of mobile traffic on Facebook. Please note that this was the last official division received in IR press releases of a delineation of mobile DAU from other metrics. Mobile advertising revenue is reported and according to Facebook, it represented approximately 88 percent of advertising revenue for Q3 2017 up from 84 percent in Q3 2016.

3. 1.37 billion people on average log onto Facebook daily and are considered daily active users (Facebook DAU) for September 2017, which represents a 16 percent increase year over year

(Source: Facebook as 11/01/17).

Sixty-six percent of Facebook’s audience would be considered DAU versus Monthly Active Users (MAU). The Implication: A huge and vastly growing number of Facebook users are active and consistent in their visits to the site, making them a promising audience for your marketing efforts.

4. There are 1.74 billion mobile active users (Mobile Facebook MAU) for December 2016 which is an increase of 21% year-over-year

(Source: Facebook as of 02/01/17).

5. On average, the Like and Share Buttons are viewed across almost 10 million websites daily.

(Source: Facebook as of 10/2/2014)

6. In Europe, over 307 million people are on Facebook.

(Source: Search Engine Journal)

The Takeaway: This isn’t just a U.S. phenomenon – a worldwide market is available via Facebook.

7. Age 25 to 34, at 29.7% of users, is the most common age demographic.

(Source: Emarketer 2012)

What this means for you: This is the prime target demographic for many businesses’ marketing efforts, and you have the chance to engage these key consumers on Facebook.

8. Five new profiles are created every second.

(Source: ALLFacebook 2012)

The Implication: Your potential audience on Facebook is growing exponentially.

9. Facebook users are 76% female (out of 100% of all females) and 66% male (out of 100% of all males).

This is stat is one that you really have to think about because it’s comparing the percentage of all females against the percentage of all males who are on Facebook. Sorry for the confusion. To dig a little deeper take a look at this study which does a much better job at explaining the nuances – Source: Brandwatch – https://www.brandwatch.com/2015/01/men-vs-women-active-social-media/) The Takeaway: Since this isn’t a large statistical difference, you should be able to effectively reach both genders on Facebook.

10. Highest traffic occurs mid-week between 1 to 3 pm.

(Source: Bit.ly blog)

On another note, a Facebook post at 7pm will result in more clicks on average than posting at 8pm (Source: Forbes). Go figure. How this can help you: You have the potential to reach more consumers and drive higher traffic to your site during peak usage times, but people may be more likely to be more engaged in the evenings. This statistic may be a factor when you are planning social communication scheduling. (Also consider that Facebook has a global audience, so you may want to plan around the time zone of your key market.)

11. On Thursdays and Fridays, engagement is 18% higher.

(Source: Bit.ly blog)

The Implication: Again, use this information to determine when to post in order to optimize your social media marketing efforts.

12. There are 83 million fake profiles.

(Source: CNN) The Takeaway from this Facebook Statistics: Nothing is perfect, so always remain thoughtful and strategic in your efforts. Also, fake or not, these are still potential consumers. There are various reasons for fake profiles, including professionals doing testing and research, and people who want to segment their Facebook use more than is possible with one account.

13. Photo uploads total 300 million per day.

(Source: Gizmodo)

The Implication: Again, this is an indication of engaged users; also, it is an indication that there are a lot of photos, as well as other information, competing for users’ attention, so target your efforts strategically.

14. Average time spent per Facebook visit is 20 minutes.

(Source: Infodocket)

What this facebook statistics means for you: You could have a short time period to make your impression, so use it wisely with relevant, interesting and unique posts and offers in order to get the most return on your efforts.

15. Every 60 seconds on Facebook: 510,000 comments are posted, 293,000 statuses are updated, and 136,000 photos are uploaded.

(Source: The Social Skinny)

The Implication of this facebook statitics: Again, there are a lot of engaged and active users, but also a huge amount of information competing for their attention, so quality and strategy on your part matter.

16. 4.75 billion pieces of content shared daily as of May 2013 which is a 94 percent increase from August 2012.

(Source: Facebook)

17. 50% of 18-24 year-olds go on Facebook when they wake up.

(Source: The Social Skinny)

What this means for you: Facebook is important to these users, and potentially, if done correctly, so is the content you post on it.

18. One in five page views in the United States occurs on Facebook.

(Source: Infodocket 2012)

How this helps you: This is a huge market on the web; if you use social media marketing efforts on Facebook well, you could have huge returns to show for it.

19. 42% of marketers report that Facebook is critical or important to their business.

(Source: State of Inbound Marketing 2012)

The Takeaway: This is a crowded marketplace, but you can’t afford to sit it out because odds are fairly high that your competition is there. The key is to use Facebook marketing correctly and make sure that your efforts stand out from the crowd.

20. 16 Million local business pages have been created as of May 2013 which is a 100 percent increase from 8 million in June 2012.

(Source: Facebook).

Facebook marketing has transformed how business is conducted, and its use by local businesses to extend their markets continues to explode.

Thought to take with you:

At 2.07 billion, Facebook has more monthly active users than WhatsApp (500 million), Twitter (284 million) and Instagram (200 million)—combined (Source: CNBC). Please note that this is no longer true. Instagram now has over 600 million users according to Instagram’s report December 21, 2016. Facebook continues to reign in popularity over other social media channels, but the competition is mounting.

To learn more about Facebook statistics you’ll love the information from Facebook themselves (https://investor.fb.com/investor-news/press-release-details/2017/Facebook-Reports-Third-Quarter-2017-Results/default.aspx).

Earn Money Jobs Online

20 Online Jobs from Home: Earn $2500 & More Per Month

You don’t need for any qualification, experience or any technical knowledge to start any of the online jobs mentioned below.

20 Best Online Jobs from Home

Here is a great list of 20 online jobs from home. You can work on any of these internet jobs & earn over $2000 per month.

Click on the links to find details of these online jobs & start working with your favorite one.

  1. Online Survey Jobs
  2. Simple Ad Clicking Jobs
  3. Online GPT Jobs
  4. Blogging
  5. Affiliate Marketing
  6. Online Jobs with YouTube
  7. Online Freelancing Jobs
  8. Online Writing Jobs
  9. Captcha Solving Jobs
  10. Online Data Entry Jobs
  11. Earn with your Smartphone
  12. Amazon Online Jobs
  13. Online Tutoring Jobs
  14. Fiverr
  15. Online Transcription Jobs
  16. Buy & Sell (Domain + Site)
  17. Social Media Jobs
  18. Online Selling
  19. Digital Marketing
  20. Stock & Forex Trading

Income jobs gif

Start here….

1. Online Survey Jobs

Paid surveys are the best online jobs from home for people like us who want to make $1000 or more working 1-2 hours from the comfort of their home.

You can join survey sites and earn money by completing surveys.

There are hundreds of best and free survey sites where you can signup and receive regular surveys. You will get $5 to $20 for completing one survey.

If you join 10-20 sites, you can receive minimum 50 paid surveys in a month and make more than $1000 per month.

Here in this post, I will show you list of best survey sites where you can get regular surveys. I am making a regular income from these survey sites.

Make $1000 per month by Online Surveys with 21 Best Sites
https://www.sunnyrabiussunny.com/21-best-online-survey-sites/

 

2. Online Ad Clicking Jobs

This is the easiest online job because even a 10 years kid can do this. Here, you have to join some legit sites that pay for clicking and reading ads.

It’s easy to earn $250 to $500 by working 15-20 minutes on these sites.

These sites are known as PTC sites. There are hundreds of PTC sites but only few are legit.

You can make more than $60,000 from one such PTC site. Trust me, I never worked more than 10 minutes on this site for making this much income.

I will show you 5 such legit sites including this above site where you can make a good income working part-time.

Just 4 simple steps to earn from these online jobs-

  1. Join some legit PTC sites (It’s free to join)
  2. Log in to your account daily.
  3. View ads & complete other tasks.
  4. Get paid instantly

Here is the list of 6 Most Trusted PTC sites

1. ClixSense
2. NeoBux
3. PrizeRebel
4. Paidverts
5. BuxP
6. InboxDollar


 

3. Online Jobs with GPT Sites

Get paid to complete tasks or GPT is another concept similar to ad clicking jobs where you can earn extra $250+ by working 15-30 minutes daily.

In this online job, you need to work on various tasks like signup on a website, playing games, participating in forums, completing small surveys, watching videos etc.

Again there are hundreds of GPT sites but only a few are legit.

You don’t need to waste your time on fake GPT sites because I have tested all these sites. I will show you only those sites which pay their members on regular basis.

1. Swagbucks:

Undoubtedly, Swagbucks is the most popular online survey program that allows you to earn cash & free gift cards.

Swagbucks offers you the opportunity to win points while shopping at your favorite retailers, watch videos, search the web, answer surveys and shop for deals.

You can receive cash via PayPal or redeem your points for gift cards for shopping at Amazon and Walmart.

2. Survey Downline:

One of the top paid survey company available for people in US, UK, Canada & Australia. You can withdraw your income in your PayPal account.

You can make more money by referring your friends & relatives. It’s a 2 level referral program where you get paid 10% earnigs of all the members under your network.

3. GlobalTestMarket:

GlobalTestMarket is a fast way to make money online. The company’s website states, it has removed all hassle so you can focus on giving your opinions and getting rewarded.

“Tell us what you think about the products you use every day or even try new ones before they hit store shelves! With GlobalTestMarket your ideas really do make a difference,” the website states.

GlobalTestMarket calls itself the world’s No-1 site for paid online surveys, having paid over US$ 30million to members who complete their surveys.

4. E-Poll Market Research:

E-Poll offers its members a convenient online forum to express their opinions on a variety of issues that affect your daily life.

Surveys offered by E-Poll Market research are interactive. Here too, you earn points for every completed survey that are exchangeable for gift cards to get free stuff.

5. Toluna Paid Surveys:

Ranking among topmost companies for paid surveys is Toluna. The company has some 14 million registered members in 68 countries. You can get paid for taking surveys & testing products.

The surveys you take online provide manufacturers with valuable insights and help them discover new business ideas and opportunities.

6. Nielsen :

By participating in Nielsen’s research, you can help to improve online products and services you use online today. Nielsen Computer and Mobile Panel combine your unique internet usage with people like you to build a picture of Internet behavior.

Nielsen’s surveys are mainly about various internet related services. Nielsen’s Computer and Mobile Panel gives out gifts worth US$ 10,000 monthly. This is one of the most prestigious companies in online surveys.

7. InboxDollars

One of the most popular site for earning rewards & cash by watching TV, completing paid surveys & shopping online. More than 50 millions US dollars has been paid to the members.

You can also get paid by playing games, reading paid emails, searching online & completing various offers. InboxDollars is having partnership with dozens of most trusted brands like NetFlix, Traget, WalMart, H&R Block etc.

You will get $5 bonus just for signup.

8. Survey Momma:

Claims to have rewarded over US$ 36million worth cash and gift vouchers worldwide recently. Survey Momma allows you to complete online surveys anytime anywhere through your computer and mobile phone.

The company offers handsome rewards such as cash through PayPal, Amazon e-certificates, home appliances and electronics or other products, gift cards and shopping vouchers.

9. MyPoints Online Surveys:

My Points is an online survey website with a difference. You can earn points here while shopping, watching videos and doing other routine activities. Later, you can submit reviews and surveys of your experiences.

The company awards you points for these online surveys that are redeemable for cash vouchers and gifts.

10. InboxPays:

Pays a bonus of US$ 5 when you enroll on their website. Once you enroll, the company starts sending emails to your registered ID.

All you need do is open those emails, answer a few questions and click whatever links are provided to earn your points. Your earnings can be converted into merchandise or cash.

11. ClickPerks

Another great sites for earning rewards & cash for taking surveys.  Other than paid surveys, you will also get paid for shopping online, watching videos, discovering exclusive offers, & playing various games.

You can download their mobile app so that you can do all these things on the go.  Signup does not take more than a minute.

12. Panel Pay Day:

A review about this website states: “Panel Payday is new website which promises to match its members with “verified paid survey panels,” in addition to a wide variety of other opportunities to earn money using the internet.

Unlike many other survey companies around which claim to give people access to high paying online surveys, Panel Payday says that registering with their website is completely free and will give you instant access to their partner companies.

Members can also qualify to earn an instant $25 Sign Up Bonus when initially registering with the company”.

13. Opinion Bureau:

Opinion Bureau community has been developed by Internet Research Bureau Pvt. Ltd. (IRB). It enables consumers to express their voice and opinion and directly influence market research and markets.

The company offers paid surveys and polls on products and services you use daily. You also get the opportunity to share your opinion and feedback, while getting paid for participation.

14. Vindale Research:

Now if you are looking for hard cash, Vindale Research offers the best solution. The company has so far paid over US$ 6 million cash to its members in USA.

Surveys are easy to complete & hundreds of paid surveys are added on daily basis. You can get paid via check or PayPal. They have their own app so you can always work on the go. What more, you can also get $2 signup bonus.

15. Panda Research:

Here you get a maximum payout of US$ 25 per week or US$ 100 per month. The company has paid over US$ 2.5 million to its subscribers till date. Panda Research emails you its online surveys.

You need to complete and mail them back. More income can be earned in different ways such a referral of friends and relatives. Once they enroll, you are also entitled to a bonus.

16. SurveyJunkie:

According to reviews, SurveyJunkie is now a vastly improved online paid survey service. Their website offers you surveys on various topics. You need to select the ones of interest.

Payout is via PayPal. The company sends your cash to PayPal as soon as you reach the threshold of US$ 10. How soon you can reach this target depends upon your efforts.

17. Survey Voices:

Proceed with extreme caution when you open this website. Survey Voices asks you to enroll with your basic details including name, address and email ID.

However, instead of leading you to surveys, it takes you to other websites that offer online paid surveys. Further, some reviewers have expressed doubts over how personal info garnered from you is utilized. Of course, US laws on identity sharing or leaking are strict.

18. iSurveyWorld:

Once again, iSurvey World operates through its affiliates. Once you enroll, you do not get surveys directly from this website. Instead, you get entry to affiliates of this research and marketing service.

The only salient feature of this website is, you get a very basic tutorial on how to access affiliate surveys and complete online surveys to make money.

19. i-Say:

Available in over 20 languages and almost equal number of countries worldwide, i-Say is a division of the global survey major, Ipsos. Joining i-Say is rather simple.

All you need to do is register yourself online by providing details including your name, mailing address and preference of subjects about which you wish to take surveys.

For every successfully completed survey, i-Say pays you i-Say Points. Further, these i-Say Points can be redeemed for merchandise at leading stores.

20. The Harris Polls:

“Over the last five decades, Harris Polls have become media staples around the world.  Frequent polls tap into a representative sample of Americans of all ages, genders, income and ethnic backgrounds.

From sports to health, politics to the economy, the Harris Poll reflects Americans’ opinions on a wide range of topics and are regularly published by national, local, consumer, business, and trade media outlets,” says the company’s website.

Since 2014, The Harris Polls is owned by US survey major, Nielsen.

21. Survey Premium

One of the best thing about Survey Premium is that you can get free cash of $25 once you signup and complete offer on the website. You will get regular survey because they have got hundreds of well know companies and brands in their database.

I am sure you will be able to earn some good cash & rewards after joining these paid survey sites.

 

4. Blogging

There are no better online jobs than blogging. I have made more than 1 million dollars through blogging.

I will recommend this online job to every student, housewife, and anyone.

Here are the easy steps if you want to start blogging-

  1. Create a free blog with blogger or paid blog with WordPress (Less than $10 investment)
  2. Start posting some good content (Write about your hobby, ideas, experiences or any topic you like etc.)
  3. Start promoting your blog to get traffic.
  4. Make money with different methods like AdSense, affiliate programs etc.

You can easily make $500 to $2000 per month through blogging.

5. Affiliate Marketing

This is another highest earning opportunity but its bit difficult than other online work mentioned here.

Affiliate marketing means becoming affiliated with any online merchant and promote their products.

You will get a commission whenever someone completes an action like signing up on a merchant site or purchase something there, through your promotion.

You will find hundreds of best affiliate programs where you can signup as an affiliate.

  • CJ Affiliate Network
  • ClickBank
  • Amazon Associates Program
  • ShareASale Affiliate
  • Rakuten Affiliate Network
  • Affiliate Window
  • LinkConnector
  • Neverblue Affiliate Program
  • PepperJam Affiliate Network

6. Online Jobs with YouTube

There are many ways to make money from YouTube but becoming a YouTuber is the best way to earn.

There are just 3 steps to earn from this online job opportunity.

  1. Join YouTube Partner Program
  2. Create interesting videos.
  3. Upload to YouTube & start counting money.

You can easily make $500 to $1000 per month uploading 1-2 videos in a week.

If you want to make more money, then you can promote your videos through your social networks so that your videos can get more views.

7. Online Freelancing Jobs

Freelancing is one of the hottest online jobs for individual people with some online skills. You can earn a decent income by selling services you are expert in.

There are hundreds of freelance jobs on internet you can do like designing a logo, writing an article, working as virtual assistant, coding, data entry work, website design, SEO etc.

You can join freelance websites like UpWork, Freelancer, Fiverr etc. where you can find such jobs and earn $10 to $15 per hour.

8. Online Writing Jobs

Content writers are in great demand. You can get paid from $10 to $100 for writing a 1000+ words content.

There are many online writing jobs like writing reviews, blog content, emails, social media writer, story writer etc that can give you good earning.

9. Captcha Online Jobs

This is also very simple internet job where you have to type the Captcha to earn money. Captcha images contain 4-10 characters which you have to identify & enter.

You can earn $1 to $3 for solving 1000 captchas. You can type 1000 Captchas in 1-2 hours depending upon your typing speed.

If you work 2-3 hours daily, then you can earn up to $500 solving Captchas.

We have prepared a list of 10 best captcha entry sites where you can signup & start earning immediately.

  • MegaTypers
  • ProTypers
  • Captcha2Cash
  • Kolotibablo.com
  • FastTypers
  • 2Captcha
  • QlinkGroup
  • VirtualBee
  • CaptchaTypers

10. Online Data Entry Jobs

Do you know there are dozens of top companies where you can join as an online data entry worker?

These companies don’t ask for any registration charges. We try to find more & more companies & update our site with the genuine companies.

11. Earn Money from your Smartphone

Another best opportunity to make some extra income from your Smartphone (Android & iPhone both).

You can find hundreds of best mobile apps which pay you for completing simple offers.

We have shortlisted 20 best mobile apps that has thousands of satisfied members & pay better income.

You can install these apps & make money by completing offers like playing free games, trying some offers, watching videos, installing apps, signup on sites, short surveys etc.

Check the List of 20 Apps & Start Making Money here.

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.shillingstoneapps.earn.money

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.mindfreelabs.mintcoins&hl=en

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ayet.cashpirate&hl=en

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.google.android.apps.paidtasks

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.appredeem.apptrailers&hl=en

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.gympact.android&hl=en

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.quri.easyshift&hl=en

 

12. Amazon Online Jobs

There are different names to this online jobs like micro jobs, micro task, short task, crowdsourcing etc.

Micro jobs are tasks that are short in nature & easy to solve.

You as a micro worker can work on these tasks & get paid for completing each task.

You can earn $0.05 to $1 for very small task like sharing & liking something on social sites, finding a contact detail online, solving a captcha, review a product etc.

There are many tasks that can pay you even more than $5.

Though there are number of sites that provides short task but Amazon Turk is the biggest micro-task provider. You can also check:

  1. MicroWorkers
  2. ShortTask
  3. MinuteWorkers
  4. CrowdFlower

13. Online Tutoring Jobs

If you can teach someone online then this will be the best internet job for you. Depending on your skills & experience, you can teach kids, college students or others.

You can teach various subjects, languages or courses through Skype or other software. You need a PC with a high-speed internet connection to start with this.

You can make more than $10 per hour as a tutor.

You can read our online tutoring jobs guide (coming soon) that will show you exact steps to work as a tutor and make more income in less time.

14. Make Money on Fiverr

I have been working on Fiverr since 2012 & made a very good income. Fiverr is a very nice opportunity for people to earn by working online.

There are hundreds of things you can do on Fiverr. You can earn around $5 or multiple of $5 for one single task.

15. Online Transcription Jobs

Transcription simple means getting raw data from audio & video recordings and convert it into text.

You need a number of skills such as excellent listening and typing skills and linguistic skills if you want to start this online job.

High paid transcription jobs include medical, legal, media, police, entertainment etc. Salaries range from $35,000 to $1,50,000 per annum.

16. Buy & Sell Domain & Website

The normal price of a domain is not more than $10 or $15.

But if a company or individual wants to buy a domain of their choice & if that domain is available to someone else then sometime they may pay thousands of dollars to get that domain.

Here is the opportunity to research and find some domain that may fetch a premium price in future but at present, you can buy it for less than $10 from GoDaddy.

Buy & Sell Website: Another similar opportunity but here you don’t need a premium domain.

You buy an existing website or create a website from scratch and grow it so that it can generate good revenues.

Then you can sell it on Flippa or Free Market at 12 to 15 times of your average monthly revenue.

Thousands of internet marketers earn a huge income from website flipping.

Here are the simple steps for this business-

  1. Either purchase an existing website from Flippa OR a domain with hosting & then develop the website.
  2. Use different methods to grow the traffic on this website & start earning from this.
  3. After 3 to 6 months of consistent earning, sell it for 12 to 15 times price of your monthly earning.
  4. Repeat from step 1 to step 3 with more websites.

17. Social Media Jobs

There are 2 ways you can make money from social media. One is by handling social media profiles of different individuals or companies.

Second way is by promoting products of different companies as influencers (provided you have a good following.)

You can find online jobs related to managing social media account on job portals like Indeed, Monsters etc.

If you have a large following and wants to become an influencer then you can mention in your profile.

People who wants to promote their product will approach you and pay a great amount for posting their content in your profile.

18. Online Selling Jobs

Selling on Amazon, eBay or other popular shopping sites is another best online work. You can become a seller and sell your products.

If you don’t have any product then you can research your local market and buy something unique to sell on these shopping sites by keeping your margin.

I know many people who make more than $2500 in net profit selling different things online in their spare time. There is FameBit.com for this.

19. Become a Digital Marketer

There is a number of digital marketing jobs available on the internet. You can work for someone as a social media or SEO executive, analyst, content marketer or blog editor.

You need to learn digital marketing course if you want to do any of the above online jobs.

You can even handle social accounts of busy individuals, companies, celebrities or rich people & make good monthly income.

20. Stock & Forex Trading

Stock & Forex trading is one of the best online jobs from home for people like work-at-home mom, students, part-timers & retired who has good knowledge of share market.

It’s better to enter this field only after taking good training on stocks & Forex trading otherwise you may lose your money.

Bonus:- Network Marketing

MLM is one of my favorite ways of making money because I get a chance to network with different people.

There are many legit MLM companies that you can join and start working online for that company to make money.

 

You can simply Sign UP FREE to know ways of earning money and training  AND you can receive exclusive training for many online jobs & other tips that will help you to make & save more money.

You will always feel satisfied with our content.

Be persistent & keep patience in order to make good money from these online jobs.

Make Money Online from Smartphone

Earn $1000 per month by Online Surveys with 21 Best Sites

Not very long ago, surveys were boring. Indeed, we all have shunned those pretty looking college students who would pester us to take a survey to earn money. Over the past two decades, these charming faces with imploring mouth were replaced by something rather ubiquitous- the computer.

1. Swagbucks:

Undoubtedly, Swagbucks is the most popular online survey program that allows you to earn cash & free gift cards.

Swagbucks offers you the opportunity to win points while shopping at your favorite retailers, watch videos, search the web, answer surveys and shop for deals.

You can receive cash via PayPal or redeem your points for gift cards for shopping at Amazon and Walmart.

2. Survey Downline:

One of the top most highly paid survey companies available for people in US, UK, Canada & Australia. You can withdraw your income in your PayPal account.

You can make more money by referring your friends & relatives. It’s a 2 level referral program where you get paid 10% earnings of all the members of your network.

3. GlobalTestMarket:

GlobalTestMarket is a fast way to make money online. The company’s website states, it has removed all hassle so you can focus on giving your opinions and getting rewarded.

“Tell us what you think about the products you use every day or even try new ones before they hit store shelves! With GlobalTestMarket your ideas really do make a difference,” the website states.

GlobalTestMarket calls itself the world’s No-1 site for paid online surveys, having paid over US$ 30million to members who complete their surveys.

4. E-Poll Market Research:

E-Poll offers its members a convenient online forum to express their opinions on a variety of issues that affect your daily life.

Surveys offered by E-Poll Market research are interactive. Here too, you earn points for every completed survey that are exchangeable for gift cards to get free stuff.

5. Toluna Paid Surveys:

Ranking among topmost companies for paid surveys is Toluna. The company has some 14 million registered members in 68 countries. You can get paid for taking surveys & testing products.

The surveys you take online provide manufacturers with valuable insights and help them discover new business ideas and opportunities.

6. Nielsen :

By participating in Nielsen’s research, you can help to improve online products and services you use online today. Nielsen Computer and Mobile Panel combine your unique internet usage with people like you to build a picture of Internet behavior.

Nielsen’s surveys are mainly about various internet related services. Nielsen’s Computer and Mobile Panel gives out gifts worth US$ 10,000 monthly. This is one of the most prestigious companies in online surveys.

7. InboxDollars

One of the most popular sites for earning rewards & cash by watching TV, completing paid surveys & shopping online. More than 50 million US dollars has been paid to the members.

You can also get paid by playing games, reading paid emails, searching online & completing various offers. InboxDollars is having partnership with dozens of most trusted brands like NetFlix, Traget, WalMart, H&R Block etc.

You will get $5 bonus just for signup.

8. Survey Momma:

Claims to have rewarded over US$ 36million worth cash and gift vouchers worldwide recently. Survey Momma allows you to complete online surveys anytime anywhere on your computer and mobile phone.

The company offers handsome rewards such as cash through PayPal, Amazon e-certificates, home appliances and electronics or other products, gift cards and shopping vouchers.

9. MyPoints Online Surveys:

My Points is an online survey website with a difference. You can earn points here while shopping, watching videos and doing other routine activities. Later, you can submit reviews and surveys of your experiences.

The company awards you points for these online surveys that are redeemable for cash vouchers and gifts.

10. InboxPays:

Pays a bonus of US$ 5 when you enroll on their website. Once you enroll, the company starts sending emails to your registered ID.

All you need do is open those emails, answer a few questions and click whatever links are provided to earn your points. Your earnings can be converted into merchandise or cash.

11. ClickPerks

Another great sites for earning rewards & cash for taking surveys.  Other than paid surveys, you will also get paid for shopping online, watching videos, discovering exclusive offers, & playing various games.

You can download their mobile app so that you can do all these things on the go.  Signup does not take more than a minute.

12. Panel Pay Day:

A review about this website states: “Panel Payday is new website which promises to match its members with “verified paid survey panels,” in addition to a wide variety of other opportunities to earn money using the internet.

Unlike many other survey companies around which claim to give people access to high paying online surveys, Panel Payday says that registering with their website is completely free and will give you instant access to their partner companies.

Members can also qualify to earn an instant $25 Sign Up Bonus when initially registering with the company”.

13. Opinion Bureau:

Opinion Bureau community has been developed by Internet Research Bureau Pvt. Ltd. (IRB). It enables consumers to express their voice and opinion and directly influence market research and markets.

The company offers paid surveys and polls on products and services you use daily. You also get the opportunity to share your opinion and feedback, while getting paid for participation.

14. Vindale Research:

Now if you are looking for hard cash, Vindale Research offers the best solution. The company has so far paid over US$ 6 million cash to its members in USA.

Surveys are easy to complete & hundreds of paid surveys are added on daily basis. You can get paid via check or PayPal. They have their own app so you can always work on the go. What more, you can also get $2 signup bonus.

15. Panda Research:

Here you get a maximum payout of US$ 25 per week or US$ 100 per month. The company has paid over US$ 2.5 million to its subscribers till date. Panda Research emails you its online surveys.

You need to complete and mail them back. More income can be earned in different ways such a referral of friends and relatives. Once they enroll, you are also entitled to a bonus.

16. SurveyJunkie:

According to reviews, SurveyJunkie is now a vastly improved online paid survey service. Their website offers you surveys on various topics. You need to select the ones of interest.

Payout is via PayPal. The company sends your cash to PayPal as soon as you reach the threshold of US$ 10. How soon you can reach this target depends upon your efforts.

17. Survey Voices:

Proceed with extreme caution when you open this website. Survey Voices asks you to enroll with your basic details including name, address and email ID.

However, instead of leading you to surveys, it takes you to other websites that offer online paid surveys. Further, some reviewers have expressed doubts over how personal info garnered from you is utilized. Of course, US laws on identity sharing or leaking are strict.

18. iSurveyWorld:

Once again, iSurvey World operates through its affiliates. Once you enroll, you do not get surveys directly from this website. Instead, you get entry to affiliates of this research and marketing service.

The only salient feature of this website is, you get a very basic tutorial on how to access affiliate surveys and complete online surveys to make money.

19. i-Say:

Available in over 20 languages and almost equal number of countries worldwide, i-Say is a division of the global survey major, Ipsos. Joining i-Say is rather simple.

All you need to do is register yourself online by providing details including your name, mailing address and preference of subjects about which you wish to take surveys.

For every successfully completed survey, i-Say pays you i-Say Points. Further, these i-Say Points can be redeemed for merchandise at leading stores.

20. The Harris Polls:

“Over the last five decades, Harris Polls have become media staples around the world.  Frequent polls tap into a representative sample of Americans of all ages, genders, income and ethnic backgrounds.

From sports to health, politics to the economy, the Harris Poll reflects Americans’ opinions on a wide range of topics and are regularly published by national, local, consumer, business, and trade media outlets,” says the company’s website.

Since 2014, The Harris Polls is owned by US survey major, Nielsen.

21. Survey Premium

One of the best thing about Survey Premium is that you can get free cash of $25 once you signup and complete offer on the website. You will get regular survey because they have got hundreds of well know companies and brands in their database.

I am sure you will be able to earn some good cash & rewards after joining these paid survey sites.

Blindfolded Girl

30 Days Without Fear: A Plan That Will Make You be the bravest Human

Fear …. The emotion is sparked off each time there is pain, evil or danger in some context or another.

Common fear includes:

  • Fear of speaking in public
  • Fear of other people and strangers
  • Fear of authority and judgment
  • Fear of losing or failure
  • Fear of change
  • Fear of being humiliated.
  • Fear of aging
  • Fear of loneliness
  • Fear of disappointment

In essence, the emotion is aroused in cases where the impending threat is a reality or even just imagined. You feel afraid whether there is something to fear or in some cases when there is no actual need to be afraid.

Fear is a tool for utmost resilience to escape danger. A bounce back survival mechanism. Adrenaline is released into our bloodstream with resulting biological reactions.

Girl Blindfolded

Our reflexes and senses are heightened to help us escape real physical danger. We reach the ‘fight or flight’ mode.

When you feel fear your brain signals the nervous system, the heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, breathing becomes faster, and stress hormones are released. Blood from the heart flows out in preparation for leg and arms to take action.

So basically the brain shuts down the body down and prepares it for action. The ability to reason and think decreases. Some may even feel like time is slowing down and have tunnel vision, trying to make sense of what is happening. These symptoms make it hard to be logical and stay grounded situations. The response of the body to stress or fear is in itself stressful.

Mentor

Fear is a useful aid in real danger but not if the danger is self-perceived and unlikely to cause any real harm. Fear can be a drawback.

Fear holds you back if you do not need it. One such example is stage fright when making career moves. We end up making the wrong decisions due to the biological reactions of fear.

We need to be firmly grounded to deal calmly and logically with situations and not be overstimulated

The fact is 99% of times fear that is experience is fear that is non-physical. Fear existing in our minds. We think we are in danger when in actual fact we are not.

Common fears include:

  1. Fear of speaking in public
  2. Fear of other people and strangers
  3. Fear of authority and judgment
  4. Fear of losing or failure
  5. Fear of change
  6. Fear of being humiliated.
  7. Fear of aging
  8. Fear of loneliness
  9. Fear of disappointment

Everybody will definitely relate to one or more of these fears at some life phase or the other, even if it is for a short time or on a subconscious level.

Even the most successful people cannot claim to be fearless. They trained themselves to take action despite fear. Halt judging yourself if you have fear. It is as normal as having the flu.

Do you fear being rejected? Are you afraid that you are not good enough and that people will figure out that you are not clever, perfect or funny enough? Do you fear failure, and what about success, do you fear success?

Fears live inside of you and follow you like shadows. The good news is that you have the power and strength and practice resilience to rise above any fear!

We need to overcome mental fear. We need to analyze the root cause of fear and how to overcome it.

Why plan to overcome fear?

Emancipate yourself from mental slavery. None but ourselves can free our minds’ Redemption song- Bob Marley

The main reason is that fear limits your potential. Personal growth is about living life the best you can. Fear is a blocked hat prevents personal progress and growth. David Hawkins in his book ‘Power vs Force’ refers to fear as the 5th lowest level in the consciousness map of seventeen levels.

If you entrench yourself in illusions of fear you cannot rise to higher levels of consciousness like acceptance, courage, love, peace, joy, and enlightenment.

The 30-day plan to overcome fear

Studies (University of Cambridge: Reconditioning the brain to overcome fear))indicate that we can conquer fear by continual exposure to them. Whether it is extreme sports, spiders, snakes or horror movies, our tolerance grows with more exposure. We learn the fear we have been harvesting is not actually harmful.

Make a list of your most significant fears. Do one thing every day that scares you and rewards yourself for completing the challenge to overcome the fear.

Day 1

On the first day make a note to alleviate all words with negative contractions for the next thirty days. Note all the usual sentences with the words like ‘won’t’ or ‘can’t.’ Flip the focus of your sentences and focus on the positive. Change the negative to positive For example, instead of saying ‘I do not want’ say ‘I would rather’. This defaults the negative. Use this day to practice flipping over all negatives that you will practice for the next thirty days. Start your ‘fear journal’.

You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, ‘I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.’ Eleanor Roosevelt

Day 2

Wake up and put on running shoes or head straight to the gym. The goal here is to stop procrastinating. Begin with this as a daily ritual.

If you want to conquer fear, don’t sit home and think about it. Go out and get busy. Dale Carnegie

Day 3

Create a space on your daily calendar. What would you do if you have a free hour set out for yourself every day? Read, Exercise, or play with the kids? That single hour needs to impact on life for the better. Set out priorities and make ‘me’ time an hour a day. You will be surprised how much more gets accomplished in a day.

Day 4

Afraid of speaking in a public forum? Get on stage. Get involved in community forums. Go to an event in your neighborhood, raise your hand, affirm your opinion and take the stage!

The action is a great restorer and builder of confidence. Inaction is not only the result but the cause, of fear. Perhaps the action you take will be successful; perhaps different action or adjustments will have to follow. But any action is better than no action at all. Norman Vincent Peale

Day 5

Your birthday arrives and instead of celebrating you are shuddering to look at the fact that it may take a long time to count the birthday candles? Are you afraid of aging?

Do yourself a favor. Hire a makeup artist, find an aging character image and play the part, be old for the day. Observe reactions around you. You will most likely lose the fear of aging.

I’m not afraid of storms, for I’m learning how to sail my ship. Louisa May Alcott

Day 6

Afraid of being stung by bees? Contact the nearest beekeeper association in your district and venture to be a beekeeper for the day!

Boldness is a mask for fear, however great. John Dryden

Day 7

Are you afraid of authority? Maybe your supervisor? Take a day to set a meeting to let it out. If not ready to directly approach the person in question, it can be with someone you trust or a professional as well. Talking to others relieves stress and you gain a brand new perspective.

Nothing is more despicable than respect based on fear. Albert Camus

Day 8

Rule out expectations. Examine what expectations you have for others and yourself. What constraints does it have on your relationships with others if you did not have expectations of them?

Our expectations are formed based on life experiences, culture, upbringing, and religion. Suspend judgment and open your mind to brand new possibilities.

Too much self-centered attitude, you see, brings, you see, isolation. Result: loneliness, fear, anger. The extreme self-centered attitude is the source of suffering. Dalai Lama

Day 9

Do you share similar fears with others? How about setting up a group session and learning from each other?

Day 10

Afraid of public spaces and judgments. Set the day. Go to a local celebration and dance the night away like you are in front of your own mirror and no one is watching you!

Willpower is the key to success. Successful people strive no matter what they feel by applying their will to overcome apathy, doubt or fear. Dan Millman

Day 11

Go to an amusements park. Get some shivers with half a mile and half a mile back. Take a roller coaster ride.

I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear. Nelson Mandela

Day 12

Always worried about your image and how people will perceive you? Quit spending that morning hour in from of the mirror. Spend the day outside in your pajamas.

The moment we begin to fear the opinions of others and hesitate, to tell the truth, that is in us, and from motives of policy are silent when we should speak, the divine floods of light and life no longer flow into our souls. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Day 13

Stayed away from certain kinds of foods? Spend a full day on a meal plan with dishes you never tried before.

Curiosity will conquer fear even more than bravery will. James Stephens

Day 14

Get out in the world. Explore the unexplored. Plan a cultural tour of an existing ethnic tribe.

The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. H. P. Lovecraft

Day 15

If you are afraid of losing people close to you, take an initiative to write letters expressing gratitude to loved ones and close family.

My friends, love is better than anger. Hope is better than fear. Optimism is better than despair. So let us be loving, hopeful and optimistic. And we’ll change the world. Jack Layton

Day 16

If you are afraid of solitude, spend a full day alone with no mobile devices and interaction for a full day.

He who is overly attached to other experiences fear and sorrow, for the root of all grief is attachment. Thus one should discard attachment to be happy. Chanakya

Day 17

Make contact with role models you wish to meet one day but never had the courage to approach.

Day 18

If you fear getting lost. Take a different route home. Explore and change direction.

Try a thing you haven’t done three times. Once, to get over the fear of doing it. Twice, to learn how to do it. And a third time to figure out whether you like it or not.Virgil Thomson

Day 19

Launch the project that you have been procrastinating. Break open the padlock of fear that resulted in procrastination until now.

The greatest mistake we make is living in constant fear that we will make one. John C. Maxwell

Day 20

Have you been in constant disagreements with a family member, friend or colleague and cut off ties for some time? Be resilient, take the initiative to set up a meeting of to resolve the issue and maybe reconcile.

You can discover what your enemy fears most by observing the means he uses to frighten you.Eric Hoffer

Day 21

A work-related fear? We all have some kind of fear when it comes to our tasks. What are yours? Confront that fear and put it in perspective. Resolve the issue at hand

Day 22

Do you have social anxiety? Go out there and accept that invitation. This time does not recluse in a corner. In fact, leave your smartphone at home that day, or keep it inside your bag.

Day 23

Has it been a while and you keep wondering why you are snoozing off and feeling tired or your appetite has kept you munching all day? Book an appointment with your doctor and get a full health check-up.

Day 24

Do you maybe you felt like crouching in a corner waiting for the end of the world? Are you down and out, grouchy or feeling lousy? Book an appointment with a therapist.

Day 25

Afraid of heights. Challenge yourself to do the next mountain climbing expedition. The start of by taking an escalator to the top of the tallest high building in your region and look down!

“Step by step we get ahead, not necessarily in fast spurts. But you build discipline by preparing for the fast spurts.” – Charlie Munger

Day 26

Holding back to ask a special someone to accompany you on an outing? Take the plunge and make the date.

If fear is the great enemy of intimacy, love is its true friend. Henri Nouwen

Day 27

Plan those special journeys. See places. Do things you always wanted to.

There’s no fear when you’re having fun. Will Thomas

Day 28

Make a list of all you wish to complete and all the mistakes you fear. Remember do not be afraid of perfection as you will never be perfect. Mistakes are life lessons.

The greatest mistake we make is living in constant fear that we will make one. John C. Maxwell

Day 29

Celebrate a love for life. Release brakes and be free, let go. Release hurt. Release fear. Stop entertaining past pain. The energy that is consumed by hanging on to past trials is halting innovation into a new life. Take this day to journal one thing you let go of.

Love is the master key that opens the gates of happiness, of hatred, of jealousy, and, most easily of all, the gate of fear. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.

Day 30

Reflect on every challenge you have accomplished and start afresh. Follow the master plan and alleviate all fears harvested and all those that will sprout.

Breathe. Meditate. Meditation and deep breathing regulate emotions.Bloom out in a new spread of life.

 

At the end of the day, we must go forward with hope and not backward by fear and division. Jesse Jackson

Challenging your fears is taking time for a soul reflection. Every one of us has fears limiting life paths. We can transform our resistance and fear by shining light on them. Some release early, some can take time. By taking on the challenge to strengthen resilience and counteract fears we move in a wavelength of an authentic realm.

Richest

The Richest Billionaires Behind The Top 100 Brands Of 2017

Together the richest have more than $1.1 trillion, thanks to you and your favorite brands.

Richest
Laurene Powell Jobs (R), widow of Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, is one of the wealthiest women in the world with $20 billion from top brands Apple and Disney. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Look at your pocket. You’ll probably find a phone and car keys, maybe a bottle cap or receipt—things you don’t think about too often. Yet, at least one of those things has made the lucky entrepreneur who thought them up millions (if not billions) of dollars.

To help wrap your head around it, FORBES picked apart our 2017 World’s Billionaires list to find out just how many 10-figure fortunes are fueled by the top 100 brands. Yes, think Apple and Disney, but don’t forget about life’s smaller necessities: Red Bull, Netflix and Corona beer, among others. Seventy-five billionaires owe their fortunes to these beloved brands, regardless of whether they founded them.

Even more striking is their outsized wealth, proving the value of these brands. Together they sit on a $1.13 trillion throne with way more than their fair share of the billionaires’ total $7.67 trillion pot. Altogether the 75 represent 3.7% of all billionaires, but account for an impressive 14% of the total wealth.

So how did they reach these great heights? Interestingly, it wasn’t always the top companies that produced the top billionaires. Fast fashion retailer Zara is ranked 53rd among the top 100 brands but its founder Amancio Ortega has consistently ranked among the top five richest billionaires in the world in recent years. Another interesting twist involves Laurene Powell Jobs, the widow of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs. While the revolutionary company is ranked No. 1 among brands, she now gets most her fortune from Disney, ranked lower at No. 8. Below, learn more about the world’s wealthiest by browsing the complete list of billionaires and net worths behind your favorite brands.

Apple (#1)

Laurene Powell Jobs, $20 billion

Google (#2)

Larry Page, $40.7 billion

Sergey Brin, $39.8 billion

Eric Schmidt, $11.1 billion

Andreas von Bechtolsheim, $4.5 billion

David Cheriton, $4.2 billion

Kavitark Ram Shriram, $2

Microsoft (#3)

Bill Gates, $86 billion

Steve Ballmer, $30 billion

Paul Allen, $19.9 billion

Charles Simonyi, $2 billion

Coca-Cola (#4)

Sol Daurella, $1.1 billion

Facebook (#5)

Mark Zuckerberg, $56 billion

Dustin Moskovitz, $10.7 billion

Toyota (#6)

Dan Friedkin, $3.6 billion

Disney (#8)

Laurene Powell Jobs, $20 billion

Samsung (#11)

Lee Kun-Hee, $15.1 billion

Jay Y. Lee, $6 billion

Hong Ra-Hee, $1.8 billion

Lee Boo-Jin$1.6 billion

Lee Seo-Hyun, $1.5 billion

Amazon (#12)

Jeff Bezos, $72.8 billion

BMW (#14)

Stefan Quandt$18.3 billion

Susanne Klatten, $20.4 billion

Oracle (#16)

Larry Ellison, $52.2 billion

Intel (#17)

Gordon Moore, $7.3 billion

Nike (#18)

Phil Knight, $26.2 billion

Louis Vuitton (#19)

Bernard Arnault, $41.5 billion

Walmart (#22)

S. Robson Walton, $34.1 billion

Jim Walton, $34 billion

Alice Walton, $33.8 billion

Lukas Walton, $11.3 billion

Ann Walton Kroenke, $6 billion

Christy Walton, $5.4 billion

Nancy Walton Laurie, $4.3 billion

Drayton McLane Jr., $1.9 billion

Budweiser (#25)

Jorge Paulo Lemann, $29.2 billion

Marcel Herrmann Telles, $14.8 billion

Carlos Alberto Sicupira, $12.5 billion

SAP (#27)

Hans-Werner Hector, $1.4 billion

H&M (#33)

Stefan Persson, $19.6 billion

Lottie Tham, $3.2 billion

Charlotte Soderstrom, $2.2 billion

Karl-Johan Persson, $2.1 billion

Tom Persson, $2.1 billion

L’Oreal (#34)

Liliane Bettencourt, $39.5 billion

 Ford (#35)

Martha Ford, $1.5 billion

Home Depot (#39)

Bernard Marcus, $4 billion

Arthur Blank, $3.3 billion

Gucci (#44)

Francois Pinault, $15.7 billion

Starbucks (#45)

Howard Schultz, $3 billion

IKEA (#46)

Jonas Kamprad, $1 billion

Mathias Kamprad, $1 billion

Peter Kamprad, $1 billion

Hermes (#48)

Nicolas Puech, $2.3 billion

Fox (#51)

Rupert Murdoch$13.1 billion

Ebay (#52)

Pierre Omidyar, $8 billion

Jeffrey Skoll, $4.3 billion

Meg Whitman, $2.3 billion

Zara (#53)

Amancio Ortega, $71.3 billion

Sandra Ortega Mera, $6.7 billion

Cartier (#58)

Johann Rupert, $6.1 billion

Hyundai (#71)

Chung Mong-Koo, $4.9 billion

Red Bull (#74)

Dietrich Mateschitz, $13.4 billion

FedEx (#75)

Frederick Smith, $4.3 billion

Netflix (#79)

Reed Hastings, $1.8 billion

Chanel (#80)

Alain Wertheimer, $11.8 billion

Gerard Wertheimer, $11.8 billion

Thomson Reuters (#83)

David Thomson, $27.2B

Heineken (#85)

Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken, $12.6 billion

LEGO (#86)

Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, $21.1 billion

Subway (#87)

Peter Buck, $2.5 billion

Uniqlo (#91)

Tadashi Yanai, $15.9 billion

Corona (#95)

Maria Asuncion Aramburuzabala, $5.8 billion

Prada (#97)

Miuccia Prada, $3.2 billion

Patrizio Bertelli, $3.2 billion

10 Cool Technology Ideas to Market Your Business or Campaigns

Marketing isn’t what it used to be. Technology has changed that!

Do you know that today we’ve got:

  • billboards that can ascertain our ages and genders
  • movie trailers that can change in real time depending on who the viewer is and
  • mobile apps that can detect what commercial is airing on TV and send viewers related coupons on their phones.

And that’s just a start. There’s no doubt technology is ushering in some fascinating new ways of connecting brands with consumers. In fact, to say technology is rapidly evolving doesn’t even fit anymore. Disruptive is an adjective more likely to be used today because, honestly, tech exponentially builds on itself, resulting in a veritable sandstorm of innovation.

Here is my roundup of 10 of the latest developments in technology that can impact your marketing.

15000

1. Facial Recognition Technology

Giving away free product is a great way to build your brand, right? Unilever, the company that makes things like CloseUp Toothpaste and LUX Soap also makes ice cream and figured it would use some of it to get customers to smile—literally. It made a vending machine called “Share Happy” that uses facial recognition to give people ice cream bars for smiling.

They even designed the box so people can upload their smiling mugs to Facebook, pushing the brand even farther out into the consumer space. When the machine debuted in Lisbon last year, it vended 52,000 ice cream bars in two days with no media support or advertising. That’s about 600 percent more than a regular ice cream machine.

The award-winning box is now on world tour doling out brand recognition as it goes.

Facial Recognition is being used not only on experiential campaigns but even on digital signage. We have evolved from broadcasting messages to delivering more digitally precise messages. But actually understanding the context of the situation or the conversation…increases the likelihood of better engagement between brands and people.

There are also possibilities to use a mashup of rear-projected video, touch, gesture recognition and facial recognition.

According to The Los Angeles Times, The Venetian Resort in Las Vegas is using facial recognition to tailor restaurant and entertainment ads for passersby and big brands like Adidas are installing and testing digital walls with facial recognition in a handful of stores to display age-appropriate shoes to customers.

2. Hyper Targeting Technology

While targeted advertising has been around for a while, today the big thing is to make ads super specific.

When people spend time online—surfing, shopping or commenting on social networks—they leave a digital footprint that data-mining systems can track. That means advertisers can profile nearly everybody today in terms of preferences, habits and demographics using technology. The results from that narrowly focused segment end up being five times better than when the company only uses one attribute.

3. Eavesdropping Apps

While they’re still mostly in a concept stage, companies are starting to play around with advertising through new apps that can tell what show you’re watching on TV or listening to on the radio.

Yahoo bought a company called IntoNow, which has a fingerprinting technology that can listen to and identify what’s on TV, and let people check in to a show or ad.  Pepsi Max ran a promotion where if you tag their ad when it runs using this app you can get a coupon for some free Pepsi Max.

The media synchronization that can recognize the audio track of a TV show can also be used on radio so if you’ve got a mobile phone and there’s a radio ad, for example, you might be able to use that to distribute a coupon directly from the audio, sort of like an audio QR code directly from the ad to the mobile phone through the microphone.

4. Augmented Reality

Swiss watchmaker Tissot, used Augmented Reality (AR) in London to let people “try on” its watches—virtually. They handed out black and white paper wristbands and when someone stood in front of the company’s large LCD screen, a webcam behind it sent the coordinates of the paper watch into an AR system which then displayed video of the person on the screen wearing a 3D virtual version of the watch. The person could even play around with the watch’s touch screen features.

AR is now being used for a wide range of marketing activities—in everything from riveting displays at conferences and for sales pitches to loyalty programs at the Point of Sale.

5. Mobile: QR Codes and Spot Targeting

Quick Response (QR) codes are the little black-and-white pixilated squares commonly found in print ads, on products, displayed on TV, and even stitched into the fabric. If you have a phone with a camera and the right kind of reader app, you can scan a QR code to display text, contact information, or open a Web page.

People are also scanning UPC barcodes—especially the ones found on products you’d find at a grocery or drug store—for product pricing and information.

New York City-based Scanbuy has seen an 800 percent increase since a year ago in the number of barcode or quick response (QR) code scans it processes and is now doing more than one per second.

While Scanbuy currently has 8 million people using its ScanLife app on their phones and has worked with big companies such as The Home Depot and Taco Bell on huge code campaigns, the company is rolling out a platform that will allow regular people and small businesses to create their own QR codes starting at $25 a month.

In addition to smartphones giving consumers near-instant access to marketing or product information and digital content, they also are empowering businesses to do local spot targeting that only serves ads to people near a certain geographic location. For instance, a movie theatre could broadcast show times to only those smartphone users within a mile radius who happen to be doing things like playing Angry Birds, listening to Slacker Radio, or other similar activities.

6. Video

Video space is seeing some interesting innovation, particularly in the area of what he calls “dynamic creative” that lets a company or advertiser change video content in real time.

You might re-edit a movie trailer on the fly depending on whether the viewer is male or female or in the North or in the South.

Cloud-based Flite is an ad platform that allows for real-time editing of ads. It can incorporate real-time content streams such as videos, polls, and other interactive elements into an ad, and even pull in social media content from Facebook, Twitter and YouTube—all of which can be switched up at any time.

For instance, a restaurant having a slow couple of hours could update its display ad with a flash deal that includes a poll and its Twitter stream that mentions the promotion.

7. Incentives and Virtual Currency

Incentivized ads in games such as Farmville, Ludo Star, Mafia Wars and Angry Birds tap into a huge audience of social gamers who play every day. It’s the idea of giving people game credits or virtual goods or other things that they can use in a game in exchange for watching ads or interacting with them or otherwise engaging with the sponsor’s content.

You can either create your own survey here using the Lab42 dashboard or they’ll do it for you.

8. Peer-to-peer promotion

Calyp is a network that rewards consumers with cash, gifts and discounts for promoting products they like with their friends and networks. Using either the Calyp mobile app or Calyp.com, an endorser can broadcast a Calyp link—through a text message, blog post or social status update—that features her favorite line of clothing, for example, and let people know there’s a big sale going on. When her friends or followers click on the link, she gets the credit.

9. Social Analytics

Today there are great analytics tools that help brands engage with customers and potential customers on social networks. Traditionally, marketers have focused on analyzing data that is theirs – visitors to our Web site, callers to our call center. But social data lives on social networks – outside the walls of the organization…It does not belong to the company, but the ability to analyze and act effectively on it is key.

10. Web

Is your Web site doing the best job it can for you?

Plenty of great tools now exist for getting measurable data about the effectiveness of your site design and how well you’re marketing to your traffic.

EyeTrackShop is different. It’s a Sweden-based digital marketing research firm with offices in New York and Los Angeles that conducts eye-tracking studies to gauge the effectiveness of not only Web site pages but also online ads, banner ads, print ads and packing designs to see if your audience will notice what you want them to. Some of their clients include P&G, Google, SnapFish and Clorox.

You simply send your sample design to EyeTrackShop, along with the demographic you want to test. From there, EyeTrackShop enlists its U.S. database of 6 million users who use their own Webcams to send video to EyeTrackShop, which then uses retina scanners to gauge gaze duration and location.

EyeTrackShop says it returns results in 48 hours, charges $2,500 for one stimuli test and $1,800 for two tests. Another useful tool you might check out is  Gigya, which you can use on your Web site to allow users to log in using their preferred social identity.

 

What Else?

Whew! That’s quite a roundup, but no doubt much more could have been mentioned. You can knock Sunny Rabius Sunny for doing all these.

What else should be on this list?

5 Ways Brands Use Science to Trick You

A big chunk of the world economy, the brands, runs on human weakness. Peer pressure, vanity, insecurity, the fact that we just cannot resist the sight of melted cheese – all of these will make us fork over our cash. And really, we’re fine with that.

But what you may not know is that there are some other, much weirder scientific principles that factor into what you buy. You might not know about them, but the people selling you things sure as hell do.

 

5. You Move in Predictable Patterns:

You step in the front door of your nearest chain grocery store. What’s immediate to your right? At Wal-Mart, Kroger, Whole Foods and countless others, that’s the fresh produce section. Some of them have their baked goods over there, too. And at those stores, the doors and registers are positioned to steer you that direction when you walk in.

This is because, after years of analysis of how humans move in a store, they’ve found that we’re as easy to predict as animal migrations. Studies show that Americans like to shop counter-clockwise. Over time, they’ve found that stores that cater to this by putting the door on the right do better business than stores with the door in the center or, worst of all, the left.

Remember, the goal is to keep you in the store as long as possible, and to make you pass as many shelves as possible. You can’t buy the new nacho cheese flavored Hamburger Helper if you don’t know it exists.

We know that rotational patterns like this are common in herd animals, like elephants, but nobody is quite sure why humans do it. Studies have shown that British, Australian or Japanese shoppers tend to go the opposite way (clockwise) through the store, so some have speculated that it’s based on the side of the road you’re most used to driving on. If you drive on the right, you head right and follow the wall around.

But whatever causes the impulse, it’s really strong. A store in Philadelphia wanted shoppers entering their store on the left, and to move clockwise. They forced customers to enter using the left entrance, only to see them immediately head to the right once inside. The managers then put down several pallets of goods in the way, thinking shoppers would just shrug and turn left and continue shopping. They were wrong. Customers struggled by the blockade to the right, shoving their carts through, demanding to move in a counterclockwise fashion, “as determined as salmon swimming upstream.”

 

4. You Can’t Resist Shiny Things:

Quick: what does this car …


… and this diamond …


… have in common?

They’re both shiny, and they’re both expensive.

Those things are not coincidental, and retailers know it. It’s almost a physical response — humans automatically assume something that gleams is fancy and valuable. Hell, most people subconsciously think their car runs better after it’s been washed and/or waxed. Likewise, go into any high-end shopping mall, and every surface you look at will be gleaming its ass off.

Researchers noted that infants would lick or put their lips on mirrored surfaces. Given the choice between a regular white plate and a reflective plate, the majority chose the reflective plate to try to ram their face into. Lay a shiny plate on the floor, and the kid will actually get down like he’s drinking from a pond, licking the center of it.
None of the infants tested did this with the white plate, they were just gumming the edge instead. So, the theory goes that early humans who had an eye for gleaming surfaces in the distance were able to pass on their genes, and today all of us get a little charge when we see light reflected on the surface of something.

 

3. Shopping Gets You High:

This holiday season, like every one before it, will feature multiple stories of a stampede at a department store that was featuring “doorbuster” sales the morning after Thanksgiving. Hundreds of crazy people lining up in the predawn hours, not to buy something rare or even valuable, but just the same shit they could have bought the day before. The act of shopping itself, the high they get from it, is what’s they’re there for. And stores and brands take advantage by turning it into an adrenaline-charged event.

We love to mock people like this, the rabid shoppers and women addicted to buying shoes, but let us ask you guys something: do you play video games? Tell us you don’t have multiple games in your collection that you’ve bought but never played. Surveys show more than 10% of you have games you never even took out of the shrinkwrap. There are entire websites devoted to helping gamers work through their backlog of purchased but unplayed games. Why? Because gamers simply like buying games, often more than actually playing them.

Dopamine. Sweet, sweet dopamine. This is the stuff your brain produces in response to sex, recreational drugs, or a really good cheeseburger. It serves all kinds of functions related to behavior, cognition, movement, and other important things like keeping the drool inside your mouth and lactating. Can’t forget lactating. More importantly, dopamine is also the gatekeeper to rewards and punishments, a system it uses to motivate us to, among other things, explore, learn and acquire new stuff.

So not only does shopping satisfy the “new stuff” need but research shows the feeling intensifies when you visit a new store or go out of town – for example,

shoppers are more likely to buy something expensive and stupid when they’re on vacation.

Not for the expensive and stupid thing or brands, remember, but for our dark master, dopamine. 

 

2. You Can’t Comprehend Numbers:

The headlines after Steve Jobs unveiled the iPad mostly focused on how inexpensive it was. Only $499!

That’s a good price for a ……

wait — for a what?

The thing didn’t exist before that day. That’s actually more than a netbook costs. It’s more than a phone. So how did we decide $499 was a good price?

Good question.
Also, why are we still doing the $_99 thing on our prices? Instead of just saying “It’ll be five hundred dollars” we still frame it as $499, even when addressing a crowd full of educated, savvy consumers? As if we’re too stupid to realize $499 is only one dollar less? We’ve surely figured that out by now, right?

Actually, no.

Humans are really bad with numbers, and it manifests itself in a whole bunch of different ways in the world of retail.

It’s the reason you will patiently wait for a sweater to go on sale so you can get it for 10% off, then buy it with a credit card and wind up paying more than the original retail price once the interest is figured in.

So when it comes to setting prices, brands know that it’s mostly up to them to frame for us what the price should be. In the biz, they call this price anchoring. So you’ll go to Best Buy and see a new TV that’s 25% off of the “Regular Price” or “MSRP.” Then you Google around and find that what they’re claiming is the “regular price” is in fact not the price, anywhere. You’re saving 25 percent over an imaginary number.

As for the iPad’s pleasant surprise price of $499? That was due to rumors leading up to the launch that it would cost $1,000 from sources like Apple Insider. Then in the unveiling, Jobs was sure to mention how everyone expects the device to cost a thousand bucks. He plants that idea in your mind and suddenly $499 looks like a steal.

 

1. Your Tastes Can be Tricked by Brand Recognition:

Brand loyalty makes perfect sense, to a degree. If you were happy with your last Toyota, it’s perfectly reasonable to buy another car from the same people who built that one. Even the Apple fanboys got to where they are by, once upon a time, buying an apple product and having a positive experience with it.

Back in the 1970s, Pepsi built an entire ad campaign around taste tests they called the Pepsi Challenge. They’d simply pit their sweet diabetes water against Coca-Cola’s and asked people which one they preferred after sampling both in a blind taste test, where the labels were hidden. Most Americans chose Pepsi, so the campaign was a complete success and Coca-Cola went down in a burning heap of sugary black syrup, never to be heard from again.


At least that was what was supposed to happen.

Instead, Coca-Cola went on outselling Pepsi around the world, to this day, despite people admitting repeatedly that they liked Pepsi better.
Even worse, in a test where they could see the labels, the brands; the results were completely reversed: people loved Coca-Cola when they could see the familiar logo and red can. This became known as the Pepsi paradox.


Likewise, in taste tests, people will consistently prefer a $90 bottle of wine to a $10 bottle, even if the only difference is the price tag. In China, they have a very expensive beer ($44 a bottle) that if you were to taste it you might recognize as Pabst Blue Ribbon, a dirt cheap beverage westerners enjoy only ironically. They just stick a gold label on the bottle and jack up the price. And the Chinese pay it because the label overrides their sense of taste.

Basically, you’re involving separate areas of the brain, one that recognizes sensations (like the taste) and another that does thinking and categorization (like remembering which brands make the good stuff). The second one can override the first; if you create a positive enough association with a brand or label.

Scientists figured this out by redoing the Pepsi challenge with the added fun of an MRI machine scanning volunteer’s brains.
In the test without the labels showing, researchers noticed Pepsi stirred up the ventral putamen (brain chunk related to reward) more than Coke did. With the labels revealed, however, the medial prefrontal cortex (brain chunk related to, among other things, figuring crap out) suddenly got in on the action, drawing on the implanted knowledge from countless ad campaigns that Coke is Good and You Like It. It overruled the part of the brain that dealt with mere sensation. Yes, they can, in fact, brainwash you into liking something.

Thankfully, science went even further and found a solution for brands. According to another study, those with damage to their ventromedial prefrontal cortex (brain chunk related to emotion) lose their brand loyalty and actually pick Pepsi even after seeing the labels.

How Your Clothes can make money

When you dress nicer, you seem to be getting larger business deals. Mainly, it’s because people assume that you’re well off based on how well you dress. Decent dress up builds trust and credibility.
As I don’t do much consulting anymore, I thought it would be a fun experiment to take the wardrobe to the extreme and see what spending six figures on clothes would do for my business.
Before I get into what I learned, keep in mind that you too can achieve similar results without spending this much money. I’ll show you how towards the end of the post.
So, let’s get started…

How do you spend $162,301 on clothes?

That’s a good question. And to be honest, I never thought clothes cost that much either.
Suits like the ones below range from $2,000 to $7,000 a pop…


Briefcases like the one below start at $3,000…


Shoes like the ones below start at a $1,790 and can go up to $5,500.


And it doesn’t stop there. Add the accessories from belts to ties to tie clips… it all adds up.
Even white dress shirts end up costing around $750.
Now that you understand how one can spend that much on clothes, let’s dive into how it can help you generate more income.

How fancy clothes can make you more money

People believe what they see. If people think you look successful, in their eyes you are successful.

It sucks because you would have rather spent the $162,301 on a charity than clothes, but you need to grow your business as it will make me more money in the long run. This will allow you to donate more money to charity.
Nonetheless, you might have a closet full of nice clothes that you wear whenever you leave the house. You will receive compliments from random strangers almost every time you walk out of the door. And some of those people will ask you what you do for work.

Sadly, none of those conversations will turn into business deals because let’s face it… the average person you meet on the street typically can’t write you a six-figure check. Most people don’t own a business, and most people aren’t high power executives in the corporate world.

Where having nice clothes really helps is in business meetings. When you will start to dress extremely nice, the people in these meetings will feel you be extremely successful. For that reason, they will want to be associated with you, and it will help to increase your closing ratio from 25% to roughly 40%. That means out of every 10 meetings, 4 results in the companies will start signing up with you.
The difference is huge! It is so huge that financially it will bring in an extra $692,500 in revenue.

How clothes can help build relationships

Clothes don’t have to be expensive. The most important part about fashion is how well the clothes fit you. And if they don’t fit very well, you can pay a tailor to help adjust the fit.
The sad reality is that people judge us on how well we do based on things they can see. Clothes being one of those things. Cars are also one of those things people judge us by.

So, are you going to start dressing differently?

Synthetic Swarm: Drone show technology for live events

Synthetic Swarm

Verity Studios’ Synthetic SwarmTM is a turnkey drone show system that is purpose-built for the live entertainment and events industry. It allows the controlled, indoor flight of a large number of self-piloted LuciesTM. Each Lucie microdrone is equipped with a programmable RGB light. The motions and light effects of each Lucie can be designed into a precise choreography that is synchronized using show control, providing a stunning complement to the traditional palette of light, sound, stage effects, and human performance.

Synchronization of each Lucie’s lights and motions allows for the creation of intricate patterns and novel stage effects that could not be achieved otherwise. By leveraging human perception of 3D structure from motion, Synthetic Swarms can be used to create illusions of very large objects floating in the air.

The Synthetic Swarm drone show system is comprised of self-piloted Lucies, a positioning system, a rack-mounted control unit, and Lucie charging stations. It is designed for a multitude of indoor spaces, including theatres, arenas, churches, and tents. Installation, calibration, and operation are quick and simple.

Stage Flyer Drone

Like the Synthetic Swarm, Verity Studios’ StageFlyers™ are available as a turnkey drone show system. Each Stage Flyer show drone is fully redundant – it is capable of continuing operation in spite of a failed battery, a failed motor, a failed connector, a failed propeller, a failed sensor, or a failure of any other component. This is achieved through the duplication of critical components and the use of proprietary algorithms, which enable safe emergency responses to component failures.

Each Stage Flyer can carry a costume that can be integrated with the Stage Flyer’s powerful LED lights – the drones can act like characters or as three-dimensional scenography, or dance and interact with human performers. Additionally, the drones can become flying lighting displays or spotlights, offering unique lighting opportunities, or they can carry payloads including cameras, mirrors, confetti, or a multitude of other stage effects.

The Stage Flyer drone show system is comprised of self-piloted Stage Flyer drones, a fully redundant positioning system, a fully redundant rack-mounted control unit, and Stage Flyer charging stations. Like the Synthetic Swarm, it is suitable for a multitude of indoor spaces and allows for quick and simple installation, calibration, and operation.

The Stage Flyer and Synthetic Swarm show systems are fully compatible and can share a single positioning system and control unit.

Verity is planning to go much further, says D’Andrea, but he won’t reveal more details, at the risk of hemming in his research. “I want to be free to create,” he says. Besides, “If you’re doing something that’s cutting edge you shouldn’t be telling people it’s cutting edge,” he says. “People will hear about it.”

He does give some tantalizing hints: His team is exploring human and machine interaction as well as adaptation and learning. There will be a major reveal in April or May, he says.

“What I care about is using technology to create wonderful things,” he says. “We keep making new discoveries. We adopt new technologies as they become available and integrate them into what we’re creating.” He adds: “Ideas are cheap. The hard part is to figure out which ones are worth pursuing, and executing.”

বাংলার ইতিহাসঃ আলেকজান্ডার থেকে শশাঙ্ক থেকে বঙ্গবন্ধু

বাংলার ইতিহাসঃ আলেকজান্ডার থেকে শশাঙ্ক থেকে বঙ্গবন্ধু

The Complete History of Bangladesh. Alexander to Shawshank to Bangabandhu.

বিম্বিসারঅজাতশত্রুমৌর্য সাম্রাজ্য – গৌড় রাজ্য – মাৎস্যন্যায় – পাল রাজবংশ সেন রাজবংশ – ইলিয়াস শাহী বংশ – বায়াজিদ বংশ – গণেশ বংশ – ইলিয়াস শাহী বংশ (দ্বিতীয়) – হাবসি বংশ – হুসেন বংশ – শূর বংশ – কররানি বংশ – মুঘল আমল – ইংরেজ শাসন – দেশ বিভাজন – স্বাধীনতা যুদ্ধ

বাংলার ইতিহাস

বাংলার ইতিহাস বলতে অধুনা বাংলাদেশ ও পশ্চিমবঙ্গের বিগত চার সহস্রাব্দের ইতিহাসকে বোঝায়। গঙ্গা ও ব্রহ্মপুত্র নদ এক অর্থে বাংলাকে ভারতের মূল ভূখণ্ড থেকে বিচ্ছিন্ন করে রেখেছিল। কিন্তু তা সত্ত্বেও ভারতের ইতিহাসে বাংলা এক গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা গ্রহণ করে। প্রাচীন রোমান ও গ্রীকদের কাছে এই অঞ্চল গঙ্গারিড নামে পরিচিত ছিল। প্রায় চার হাজার বছরের পুরনো তাম্রযুগের ধ্বংসাবশেষ বাংলায় পাওয়া গেছে।
ইন্দো-আর্যদের আসার পর অঙ্গ, বঙ্গ এবং মগধ রাজ্য গঠিত হয় খ্রীষ্টপূর্ব দশম শতকে। এই রাজ্যগুলি বাংলা এবং বাংলার আশেপাশে স্থাপিত হয়েছিল। অঙ্গ বঙ্গ এবং মগধ রাজ্যের বর্ণনা প্রথম পাওয়া যায় অথর্ববেদে প্রায় ১০০০ খ্রীষ্টপূর্বাব্দে।
খ্রীষ্টপূর্ব ষষ্ঠ শতক থেকে বাংলার বেশিরভাগ এলাকাই শক্তিশালী রাজ্য মগধের অংশ ছিল। মগধ ছিল একটি প্রাচীন ইন্দো-আর্য রাজ্য। মগধের কথা রামায়ণ এবং মহাভারতে পাওয়া যায়। বুদ্ধের সময়ে এটি ছিল ভারতের চারটি প্রধান রাজ্যের মধ্যে একটি। মগধের ক্ষমতা বাড়ে বিম্বিসারের (রাজত্বকাল ৫৪৪-৪৯১ খ্রীষ্টপূর্বাব্দ) এবং তার ছেলে অজাতশত্রুর (রাজত্বকাল ৪৯১-৪৬০ খ্রীষ্টপূর্বাব্দ) আমলে। বিহার এবং বাংলার অধিকাংশ জায়গাই মগধের ভিতরে ছিল ।
৩২৬ খ্রীষ্টপূর্বাব্দে আলেকজান্ডার দ্য গ্রেটের সেনাবাহিনী মগধের নন্দ সাম্রাজ্যের সীমানার দিকে অগ্রসর হয়। এই সেনাবাহিনী ক্লান্ত ছিল এবং গঙ্গা নদীর কাছাকাছি বিশাল ভারতীয় বাহিনীর মুখোমুখি হতে ভয় পেয়ে যায়। এই বাহিনী বিয়াসের কাছে বিদ্রোহ ঘোষণা করে এবং আরও পূর্বদিকে যেতে অস্বীকার করে। আলেকজান্ডার তখন তার সহকারী কইনাস (Coenus) এর সাথে দেখা করার পরে ঠিক করেন ফিরে যাওয়াই ভাল।

CHAPTER 1 মৌর্য সাম্রাজ্য

মৌর্য সাম্রাজ্য (রাজত্বকাল ৩২১-১৮৫ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ) মগধেই গড়ে উঠেছিল। মৌর্য সাম্রাজ্যের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা ছিলেন চন্দ্রগুপ্ত মৌর্য। এই সাম্রাজ্য অশোকের রাজত্বকালে দক্ষিণ এশিয়া, পারস্য, আফগানিস্তান অবধি বিস্তার লাভ করেছিল। পরবর্তীকালে শক্তিশালী গুপ্ত সাম্রাজ্য মগধেই গড়ে ওঠে যা ভারতীয় উপমহাদেশের উত্তরাংশে এবং পারস্য এবং আফগানিস্তানের কিছু অংশে বিস্তার লাভ করেছিল। চন্দ্রগুপ্ত —> বিন্দুসার —> অশোক।

CHAPTER 2 গৌড় রাজ্য

বাংলা অঞ্চলের প্রথম স্বাধীন রাজা ছিলেন রাজা শশাঙ্ক যিনি ৬০৩ থেকে ৬৩৭ সাল পর্যন্ত আমৃত্যু বাংলাকে শাষন করেছেন। তার সাম্রাজ্যের বিসতৃতির সঠিক ধারণা পাওয়া না গেলেও প্রাচীন বাংলা বলতে আমরা বুঝি পশ্চিম বঙ্গ যা আজকের কালকাতা আর আসাম, ত্রিপুরার কিছু অঞ্চল, বিহার, উডিস্যা ও পূর্ববাংলা তথা আজকের বাংলাদেশ যা তখন গৌড় বলে পরিচিত ছিল। ব্রিটিশ শাষনামলে বাংলাভাষী অঞ্চল বেঙ্গল প্রেসিডেন্সি নামে পরিচিত ছিল। শশাঙ্কের মৃত্যুর পর ক্ষমতায় বসেন তাঁর পুত্র মানব, যিনি ৮ মাস পর্যন্ত গৌড়ের শাসনকার্য চালান। তার কিছুকাল পরই গৌড়, সম্রাট হর্ষবর্ধণ এবং কামরূপের রাজা ভাস্কর বর্মণ কর্তৃক দুভাগে বিভক্ত হয়ে যায়। শশাঙ্কের মৃত্যুর সাথে সাথে তার রাজবংশের পতন ঘটে এবং বাংলায় শুরু হয় এক অরাজক পরিবেশ যা ইতিহাসে মাৎস্যন্যায় নামে পরিচিত।

CHAPTER 3 মাৎস্যন্যায় বা বাংলার অরাজক অবস্থা

গৌড় শাষক শশাংকের মৃত্যুর পর বা তার রাজ বংশের পতনের পর বাংলায় আর কোন কেন্দ্রেীয় শাষক ছিলেন না। সমগ্র বঙ্গে বিচ্ছিন্ন বিক্ষিপ্ত অবস্থায় ছোট ছোট রাজ্যের সৃষ্টি হল যা শাষন করত কিছু অত্যাচারি দুর্বল শাষক। বঙ্গের জনগনের উপর নেমে এসেছিল সীমাহীন দুঃখ দুর্দশা। জোর যার মুল্লুক তার এই নীতিতে দেশ চলছিল। যে বা যারা জোর খাটাতে পারত সেই ছিল সেখানকার অধিপতি। অভিভাবকহীন সন্তান যেমন বেপরোয়া চলে, যা ইচ্ছা তাই করে বেড়ায় ঠিক তেমনি বাংলার জনগনও অভিবাবকহীন হয়ে যে যার মত করে চলতে লাগল যা ইতিহাসে মাৎস্যন্যায় বলে পরিচিত। মাৎস্যন্যায়ের স্থায়ীত্বকাল ছিল ১৫০ বছর বা ৭৮৭ খ্রিস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত।

CHAPTER 4 পাল রাজবংশ

মাৎস্যন্যায় সময়ের ভয়বহতা উপলব্ধি করে বাংলার জনগন গোপাল নামক এক সামন্ত রাজাকে নির্বাচনের মাধ্যমে দেশের রাজা হিসেবে গ্রহণ করেন। সেই থেকে শুরু হয় পাল রাজবংশের। গোপালই পাল রাজ বংশের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা। গোপাল রাজ বংশের শক্তিশালি দুই রাজা ছিলেন যথক্রমে ধর্মপাল (রাজত্বকাল ৭৮১-৮২১ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ) এবং দেবপাল (রাজত্বকাল ৮২১-৮৬১ খ্রিষ্টাব্দ)। পাল বংশের স্থায়ীত্বকাল ছিল প্রায় ৪০০ বছর।

  1. প্রথম গোপাল (৭৫৬-৭৮১)
  2. ধর্মপাল (৭৮১-৮২১)
  3. দেবপাল (৮২১-৮৬১)
  4. প্রথম বিগ্রহপাল, মহেন্দ্রপাল ও প্রথম শূরপাল (৮৬১-৮৬৬)
  5. নারায়নপাল (৮৬৬-৯২০)
  6. রাজ্যপাল (৯২০-৯৫২)
  7. দ্বিতীয় গোপাল (৯৫২-৯৬৯)
  8. দ্বিতীয় বিগ্রহপাল (৯৬৯-৯৯৫)
  9. প্রথম মহীপাল (৯৯৫-১০৪৩)
  10. নয়াপাল (১০৪৩-১০৫৮)
  11. তৃতীয় বিগ্রহপাল (১০৫৮-১০৭৫)
  12. দ্বিতীয় মহীপাল (১০৭৫-১০৮০)
  13. দ্বিতীয় শূরপাল (১০৭৫-১০৭৭)
  14. রামপাল (১০৮২-১১২৪)
  15. কুমারপাল (১১২৪-১১২৯)
  16. তৃতীয় গোপাল (১১২৯-১১৪৩)
  17. মদনপাল (১১৪৩-১১৬২)

CHAPTER 5 সেন রাজবংশ

পাল রাজবংশের রাজা দ্বিতীয় মহীপালের রাজত্বকালে বারেন্দ্র ‘সামন্তচক্রের’ বিদ্রোহের সুযোগ নিয়ে সেন রাজবংশের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা বিজয় সেন পশ্চিমবঙ্গে ক্রমশ স্বীয় আধিপত্য বিস্তার করেন এবং অবশেষে বাংলার পাল রাজবংশের রাজা মদনপালের রাজত্বকালে স্বাধীন সত্ত্বার বিকাশ ঘটান। বাংলায় সেন শাসনের বিশেষ তাৎপর্য এই যে, সেনগণই সর্বপ্রথম সমগ্র বাংলার ওপর তাদের নিরঙ্কুশ শাসন প্রতিষ্ঠা করতে সক্ষম হয়েছেন। ভারতবর্ষের ইতিহাসে বাংলার সেন বংশীয় রাজাদের মধ্যে বিজয় সেন, বল্লাল সেন, ও লক্ষ্মণ সেন বিশিষ্ট স্থান অধিকার করছেন। সেন রাজবংশের প্রকৃত প্রতিষ্ঠাতা বিজয় সেন হলেও মূল রাজবংশ প্রতিষ্ঠা করেন সামন্ত সেন ও হেমন্ত সেন। পরে হেমন্ত সেনের পুত্র বিজয় সেনই সেন রাজবংশের বিস্তিৃতি ঘটান। অবশেষে বাংলার সর্বশেষ স্বাধীন রাজা ছিলেন সেন বংশেরেই লক্ষন সেন। এর পরই বাংলায় শুরু হয় মুসলিম শাষন।

  1. হেমন্ত সেন (১০৯৭)
  2. বিজয় সেন (১০৯৭-১১৬০)
  3. বল্লাল সেন (১১৬০-১১৭৮)
  4. লক্ষ্মন সেন (১১৭৮-১২০৬)
  5. বিশ্বরূপ সেন (১২০৬-১২২০)
  6. কেশব সেন (১২২০-১২৫০)

CHAPTER 6 মুসলিম শাসন

ভারতীয় উপমহাদেশে ৭১২ খ্রিস্টাব্দে মুহাম্মদ বিন কাশিমের সিন্ধু বিজয়ের মাধ্যমে মুসলিম শাসনের শুরু হলেও বাংলায় মুসলিম শাসন আসে ১২০৪ সালে তুর্কি সেনাপতি ইখতিয়ারউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজির হাত ধরে। তিনিই প্রথম ১৭ মতান্তরে ১৮ জন ঘোড় সওয়ারী সৈন্য নিয়ে তখনকার বাংলার রাজধানী নদীয়া আক্রমণ করে রাজা লক্ষণ সেনকে পালিয়ে যেতে বাধ্য করে ও এ দেশে মুসলিম শাসনের পথ সুগম করেন। প্রায় ৬০০ বছরের কাছাকাছি সময় অর্থাৎ ১৭৫৭ সাল পর্যন্ত এ দেশে মুসলিম শাষন অব্যাহত ছিল।

6.1 ইলিয়াস শাহী বংশ (প্রথম পর্ব)

  1. শামসুদ্দীন ইলিয়াস শাহ (১৩৪২-১৩৫৮) (১৩৪২ থেকে পশ্চিম বাংলার লখনৌতি রাজ্যের সুলতান এবং ১৩৫২ থেকে পুরো বাংলায়)
  2. প্রথম সিকান্দর শাহ (১৩৫৮-১৩৯০)
  3. গিয়াসুদ্দীন আজম শাহ (১৩৯০-১৪১১)
  4. সাইফুদ্দীন হামজা শাহ (১৪১১-১৪১৩)
  5. মুহাম্মদ শাহ (১৪১৩)

6.2 বায়াজিদ বংশ

  1. শিহাবুদ্দিন বায়াজিদ শাহ (১৪১৩-১৪১৪)
  2. প্রথম আলাউদ্দীন ফিরোজ শাহ (১৪১৪-১৪১৫)

6.3 গণেশ বংশ

  1. রাজা গণেশ (১৪১৪-১৪১৫ এবং ১৪১৬-১৪১৮)
  2. জালালুদ্দীন মুহাম্মদ শাহ (১৪১৫-১৪১৬ এবং ১৪১৮-১৪৩৩)
  3. শামসুদ্দীন আহমদ শাহ (১৪৩৩-১৪৩৫)

6.4 ইলিয়াস শাহী বংশ (দ্বিতীয় পর্ব)

  1. প্রথম নাসিরুদ্দিন মাহমুদ শাহ (১৪৩৫-১৪৫৯)
  2. রুকনুদ্দীন বারবক শাহ (১৪৫৯-১৪৭৪)
  3. শামসুদ্দীন ইউসুফ শাহ (১৪৭৪-১৪৮১)
  4. দ্বিতীয় সিকান্দর শাহ (১৪৮১)
  5. জালালুদ্দীন ফতেহ শাহ (১৪৮১-১৪৮৭)

6.5 হাবসি বংশ

  1. বারবক শাহ (১৪৮৭)
  2. সাইফুদ্দীন ফিরোজ শাহ (১৪৮৭-১৪৯০)
  3. দ্বিতীয় নাসিরুদ্দিন মাহমুদ শাহ (১৪৯০)
  4. শামসুদ্দীন মুজাফ্ফর শাহ (১৪৯০-১৪৯৩)

6.6 হুসেন বংশ

  1. আলাউদ্দিন হুসেন শাহ (১৪৯৩-১৫১৯)
  2. নাসিরুদ্দীন নুসরত শাহ (১৫১৯-১৫৩২)
  3. দ্বিতীয় আলাউদ্দীন ফিরোজ শাহ (১৫৩২-১৫৩৩)
  4. গিয়াসুদ্দীন মাহমুদ শাহ (১৫৩৩-১৫৩৮)

6.7 শূর বংশ

  1. শের শাহ শূরি (১৫৪০-১৫৪৫)
  2. ইসলাম শাহ শূরি (১৫৪৫-১৫৫৩)
  3. ফিরোজ শাহ শূরি (১৫৫৩)
  4. আদিল শাহ শূরি (১৫৫৩-১৫৫৭)- তাঁর শাসনকালে ১৫৫৫ সালে বাংলার শাসক মুহাম্মদ খান শূরি স্বাধীনতা ঘোষণা করেন এবং ‘শামসুদ্দীন মুহাম্মদ শাহ’ উপাধী ধারণ করে বাংলার সিংহাসনে বসেন।
  5. শামসুদ্দীন মুহাম্মদ শাহ (১৫৫৫)
  6. প্রথম গিয়াসুদ্দীন বাহাদুর শাহ (১৫৫৫-১৫৬০)
  7. গিয়াসুদ্দীন জালাল শাহ (১৫৬০-১৫৬২)
  8. দ্বিতীয় গিয়াসুদ্দীন বাহাদুর শাহ (১৫৬২-১৫৬৩)

6.8 কররানি বংশ

  1. তাজ খান কররানি (১৫৬৩)
  2. সুলায়মান কররানি (১৫৬৩-১৫৭২)
  3. বায়াজিদ কররানি (১৫৭২-১৫৭৩)
  4. দাউদ খান কররানি (১৫৭৩-১৫৭৬)

6.9 মুঘল আমল(১৫২৬-১৮৫৭)

পানিপথের প্রথম যুদ্ধে ইবরাহিম লোদির বিরুদ্ধে বাবরের জয়ের মাধ্যমে মুঘল সাম্রাজ্যের সূচনা হয়। মুঘল সম্রাটরা ছিলেন মধ্য এশিয়ার তুর্কো-মঙ্গোল বংশোদ্ভূত। তারা চাগতাই খান ও তৈমুরের মাধ্যমে চেঙ্গিস খানের বংশধর। ১৫৫৬ সালে আকবরের ক্ষমতারোহণের মাধ্যমে মুঘল সাম্রাজ্যের ধ্রূপদী যুগ শুরু হয়। আকবর ও তার ছেলে জাহাঙ্গীরের শাসনামলে ভারতে অর্থনৈতিক প্রগতি বহুদূর অগ্রসর হয়। আকবর অনেক হিন্দু রাজপুত রাজ্যের সাথে মিত্রতা করেন। কিছু রাজপুত রাজ্য উত্তর পশ্চিম ভারতে মুঘলদের বিরুদ্ধে প্রতিরোধ জারি রাখে কিন্তু আকবর তাদের বশীভূত করতে সক্ষম হন। মুঘল সম্রাটরা মুসলিম ছিলেন তবে জীবনের শেষের দিকে শুধুমাত্র সম্রাট আকবর ও তার পুত্র সম্রাট জাহাঙ্গীর নতুন ধর্ম দীন-ই-ইলাহির অনুসরণ করতেন।

শাহজাহানের যুগে মুঘল স্থাপত্য এর স্বর্ণযুগে প্রবেশ করে। তিনি অনেক স্মৃতিসৌধ, মসজিদ, দুর্গ নির্মাণ করেন যার মধ্যে রয়েছে আগ্রার তাজমহল, মোতি মসজিদ, লালকেল্লা, দিল্লি জামে মসজিদ। আওরঙ্গজেবের শাসনামলে মুঘল সাম্রাজ্যের সীমানা সর্বোচ্চ পর্যায়ে পৌছায়। শিবাজী ভোসলের অধীনে মারাঠাদের আক্রমণের ফলে সাম্রাজ্যের অবনতি শুরু হয়। আওরঙ্গজেবের সময় দক্ষিণ ভারত জয়ের মাধ্যমে ৩.২ মিলিয়ন বর্গ কিলোমিটারের বেশি অঞ্চল মুঘল সাম্রাজ্যের অন্তর্গত হয়। এসময় সাম্রাজ্যের জনসংখ্যা ছিল ১৫০ মিলিয়নের বেশি যা তৎকালীন পৃথিবীর জনসংখ্যার প্রায় এক চতুর্থাংশ এবং জিডিপি ছিল ৯০ বিলিয়ন ডলারের বেশি।

১৮শ শতাব্দীর মধ্যভাগ নাগাদ মারাঠারা মুঘল সেনাবাহিনীর বিপক্ষে সফলতা লাভ করে এবং দক্ষিণাত্য থেকে বাংলা পর্যন্ত বেশ কিছু মুঘল প্রদেশে বিজয়ী হয়। সাম্রাজ্যের প্রশাসনিক ও অর্থনৈতিক প্রক্রিয়ার দুর্বলতার কারণে অভ্যন্তরীণ অসন্তোষ সৃষ্টি হয় যার ফলে বিভিন্ন প্রদেশ কার্যত স্বাধীন হয়ে পড়ে। ১৭৩৯ সালে কারনালের যুদ্ধে নাদির শাহের বাহিনীর কাছে মুঘলরা পরাজিত হয়। এসময় দিল্লি লুন্ঠিত হয়। পরের শতাব্দীতে মুঘল শক্তি ক্রমান্বয়ে সীমিত হয়ে পড়ে এবং শেষ মুঘল সম্রাট দ্বিতীয় বাহাদুর শাহের কর্তৃত্ব শুধু শাহজাহানাবাদ শহরে সীমাবদ্ধ হয়ে পড়ে। সিপাহী বিদ্রোহের সমর্থনে তিনি একটি ফরমান জারি করেছিলেন। সিপাহী বিদ্রোহ ব্যর্থ হলে ব্রিটিশ ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানি তার বিরুদ্ধে রাজদ্রোহীতার অভিযোগ এনে কারাবন্দী করে। শেষে তিনি রেঙ্গুনে নির্বাসিত হন এবং সেখানেই মারা যান।

  1. জহিরউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ বাবর (1526-1530)
  2. নাসিরউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ হুমায়ুন (1530-1556)
  3. আকবর-এ-আজম জালালউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ (1556-1605)
  4. জাহাঙ্গীর নুরউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ সেলিম (1605-1627)
  5. শাহজাহান শাহাবউদিন মুহাম্মদ খুররম (1627-1658)
  6. আলমগীর মুহিউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ আওরঙ্গজেব (1658-1707)
  7. আবুল ফাইজ কুতুবউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ আজম হ (1707-1707)
  8. বাহাদুর শাহ কুতুবউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ মুয়াজ্জম (1707-1712)
  9. মাআজউদ্দিন জাহানদার শাহ বাহাদুর (1712-1713)
  10. ফর‌রুখসিয়ার (1713-1719)
  11. রাফি উল-দারজাত (1719-1719)
  12. দ্বিতীয় শাহজাহান রাফি উদ-দৌলত (1719-1719)
  13. মুহাম্মদ শাহ রোশান আখতার বাহাদুর (1719-1748)
  14. আহমেদ শাহ বাহাদুর (1748-1753)
  15. দ্বিতীয় আলমগীর আজিজউদ্দিন (1754-1759)
  16. তৃতীয় শাহজাহান মুহিউল মিল্লাত (1759-1760)
  17. দ্বিতীয় শাহ আলম আলি গওহর (1759-1806)
  18. দ্বিতীয় আকবর শাহ মির্জা আকবর (1806-1837)
  19. আবু জাফর সিরাজউদ্দিন মুহাম্মদ বাহাদুর শাহ জাফর (1837-1857)

বাংলার নবাব

  1. মুর্শিদকুলি জাফর খান ১৭০৩-১৭২৭
  2. সুজা উদ্দিন ১৭২৭-১৭৩৯
  3. সফররাজ খান ১৭৩৯-১৭৪০
  4. আলিবর্দী খান ১৭৪০-১৭৫৬
  5. সিরাজদ্দৌলা ১৭৫৬-১৭৫৭

CHAPTER 7 ইংরেজ শাসন

১৭৫৭ খ্রিস্টাব্দের ২৩ জুন পলাশির আম বাগানে ভগিরতি নদীর তীরে বাংলার শেষ স্বাধীন নবাব সিরাজউদ্দোলার মৃত্যুর মাধ্যমে এ দেশে ইংরেজ শাসনের উন্মেষ হলো। মীর জাফরের মীর জাফরীর কারণে বাংলা তথা পুরো ভারতবর্ষ হারালো তাঁর স্বাধীনতা।

  1. মীরজাফর ১৭৫৭-১৭৬০
  2. মীরকাসিম ১৭৬০-১৭৬৩
  3. মীরজাফর (দ্বিতীয় বার) ১৭৬৩-১৭৬৫
  4. নাজম উদ দৌলা ১৭৬৫-১৭৬৬
  5. সইফ উদ দৌলা ১৭৬৬-১৭৭০

ব্রিটিশ শাসনের সময়ে দুটি মারাত্মক দুর্ভিক্ষ বা মন্বন্তর বহুমানুষের জীবনহানি ঘটিয়েছিল। প্রথম দুর্ভিক্ষটি ঘটেছিল ১৭৭০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে এবং দ্বিতীয়টি ঘটেছিল ১৯৪৩ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে। ১৭৭০ সালে ব্রিটিশ ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানির রাজত্বকালে বাংলার দুর্ভিক্ষটি ছিল ইতিহাসের সব থেকে বড় দুর্ভিক্ষগুলির মধ্যে একটি। বাংলার এক তৃতীয়াংশ মানুষের মৃত্যু ঘটেছিল ১৭৭০ এবং তার পরবর্তী বছরগুলিতে।

অবিভক্ত ভারতের বাংলা অঞ্চলে, ১৯ শতক জুড়ে এবং ২০ শতকের প্রথমার্ধে সমাজ সংস্কার আন্দোলনই বাংলার নবজাগরণ নামে পরিচিত। রাজা রামমোহন রায়ের (১৭৭২ –১৮৩৩) হাত ধরে ১৯ শতকে এ নবজাগরণের সূচনা। ২০ এর শতকের মধ্যমাংশে রবীন্দ্রনাথের হাত ধরে অবসান ঘটে এ নবজাগরণের। অসংখ্য সাহিত্যিক , বিজ্ঞানী, সাংবাদিক ও দেশপ্রেমিকের হাত ধরে বাংলার নবজাগরণ বাংলাকে উত্তরণ করে মধ্যযুগ থেকে আধুনিক যুগে।
১৮৫৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দের সিপাহি বিদ্রোহ ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কম্পানির শাসনের অবসান ঘটায় এবং বাংলা সরাসরি ভাবে ব্রিটিশ রাজবংশের শাসনাধীনে আসে।

  1. ওয়ারেন হেস্টিংস (১৭৭৩–১৭৮৫): ছিয়াত্তরের মন্বন্তর (১৭৬৯-৭৩), রোহিলা যুদ্ধ (১৭৭৩-৭৪), প্রথম ইঙ্গ-মারাঠা যুদ্ধ (১৭৭৩-৮৩), চালিসা মন্বন্তর (১৭৮৩-৮৪), দ্বিতীয় ইঙ্গ-মহীশূর যুদ্ধ (১৭৮০-৮৪)
  2. চার্লস কর্নওয়ালিস (১৭৮৬– ১৭৯৩): চিরস্থায়ী বন্দোবস্ত, তৃতীয় ইঙ্গ-মহীশূর যুদ্ধ (১৭৮৯-৯২), দোজি বরা মন্বন্তর (১৭৯১-৯২)
  3. জন শোর (১৭৯৩–১৭৯৮): ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানি আর্মি পুনর্গঠিত হয় এবং এর ব্যয়সংকোচ করা হয়।
  4. রিচার্ড ওয়েলেসলি (১৭৯৮–১৮০৫): চতুর্থ ইঙ্গ-মহীশূর যুদ্ধ (১৭৯৮-৯৯), দ্বিতীয় ইঙ্গ-মারাঠা যুদ্ধ (১৮০৩-০৫)
  5. চার্লস কর্নওয়ালিস (দ্বিতীয়বার) (১৮০৫–১৮০৫): ব্যয়বহুল যুদ্ধাভিযানের পর কোম্পানিতে আর্থিক চাপ, শান্তি স্থাপনের প্রচেষ্টায় কর্নওয়ালিসকে পুনর্বহাল করা হয়। কিন্তু তিনি গাজিপুরে মারা যান।
  6. জর্জ হিলারিও বার্লো (অস্থায়ী) (১৮০৫–১৮০৭): ভেলোর বিদ্রোহ (১০ জুলাই, ১৮০৬)
  7. লর্ড মিন্টো (১৮০৭ –১৮১৩): জাভা আক্রমণ, মরিশাস দখল
  8. মার্কুইস অফ হেস্টিংস (১৮১৩ –১৮২৩): ১৮১৪ সালে ইঙ্গ-নেপাল যুদ্ধ, কুমায়ুন, গাড়ওয়াল ও পূর্ব সিক্কিম অধিগ্রহণ, তৃতীয় ইঙ্গ-মারাঠা যুদ্ধ (১৮১৭-১৮১৮), রাজপুতানা রাজ্যসমূহ ব্রিটিশ আধিপত্য স্বীকার করে নেয় (১৮১৭)
  9. লর্ড আমহার্স্ট (১৮২৩–১৮২৮): প্রথম ইঙ্গ-ব্রহ্ম যুদ্ধ (১৮২৩-২৬), আসাম, মণিপুর এবং ব্রহ্মদেশের থেকে আরাকান ও টেনাসেরিম অধিগ্রহণ
  10. উইলিয়াম বেন্টিঙ্ক (১৮২৮–১৮৩৫): সতীদাহ প্রথা#ব্রিটিশ ও অন্যান্য ইউরোপীয় উপনিবেশে সতীদাহ প্রথা রদ (১৮২৯), ঠগি দমন (১৮২৬-৩৫), মহীশূর রাজ্য ব্রিটিশ প্রশাসনের অধীনস্থ হয় (১৮৩১-১৮৮১)
  11. লর্ড অকল্যাণ্ড (১৮৩৬–১৮৪২): উত্তর-পশ্চিম প্রদেশ প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয় (১৮৩৬), ১৮৩৭-৩৮ সালের আগ্রা মন্বন্তর, প্রথম ইঙ্গ-আফগান যুদ্ধ (১৮৩৯-১৮৪২), এলফিনস্টোন বাহিনী গণহত্যা (১৮৪২)
  12. লর্ড এলেনবরো (১৮৪২–১৮৪৪): প্রথম ইঙ্গ-আফগান যুদ্ধ (১৮৩৯-১৮৪২), সিন্ধ অধিগ্রহণ (১৮৪৩), ব্রিটিশ ভারতে দাসপ্রথা বিলোপ (১৮৪৩)
  13. হেনরি হার্ডিঞ্জ (১৮৪৪–১৮৪৮): ১ম ইঙ্গ-শিখ যুদ্ধ (১৮৪৫-৪৬), লাহোর চুক্তি (১৮৪৬) অনুযায়ী শিখেরা জলন্ধর দোয়াব, হাজারা ও কাশ্মীর ব্রিটিশদের দেয়, অমৃতসর চুক্তি (১৮৪৬) অনুযায়ী কাশ্মীর জম্মুর রাজা গুলাব সিংকে দেয়া হয়।
  14. মার্কুইস অফ ডালহৌসি (১৮৪৮–১৮৫৬): ২য় ইঙ্গ-শিখ যুদ্ধ (১৮৪৮-৪৯), পাঞ্জাব অধিগ্রহণ (১৮৪৯), রেলের নির্মাণ সূচনা (১৮৫০), টেলিগ্রাফ লাইন স্থাপন (১৮৫১), ২য় ইঙ্গ-ব্রহ্ম যুদ্ধ (১৮৫২-৫৩), গঙ্গা খাল চালু (১৮৫৪), স্বত্ববিলোপ নীতি
  15. চার্লস ক্যানিং (১৮৫৬–১৮৫৮): বিধবাবিবাহ আইন (২৫ জুলাই, ১৮৫৬), প্রথম আধুনিক বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় (১৮৫৭), ১৮৫৭ সালের মহাবিদ্রোহ (১০ মে, ১৮৫৭–২০ জুন, ১৮৫৮), ভারত শাসন আইন ১৮৫৮ অনুযায়ী ব্রিটিশ ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানির শাসনবিলোপ

১৮৫৭ সালে সমগ্র ভারতবর্ষে অভূতপূর্ব সিপাহী বিদ্রোহ (Sepoy Rebellion/ Sepoy Mutiny ) শুরু হয় ইতিহাসে যা ব্রিটিশ ঔপনিবেশিক শাসনের বিরুদ্ধে প্রথম ঐক্যবদ্ধ স্বাধীনতা আন্দোলন নামে অভিহিত হয়। সিপাহী বিদ্রোহ একটি বিক্ষুব্ধ প্রতিরোধ প্রয়াস হলেও তা অধিকাংশ ক্ষেত্রেই সিপাহী ও রাজন্যবর্গের মধ্যে সীমিত ছিল। যুদ্ধ ভারতবর্ষের সর্বত্র ছড়িয়ে পড়লেও স্থানভেদে যুদ্ধের প্রকৃতি, বিস্তৃতি ও জনগনের ভুমিকা ভিন্ন ছিল। যুদ্ধের প্রত্যক্ষ কারণ হিসেবে এনফিল্ড রাইফেলের টোটায় ‘গরু ও শূকরের চর্বি মিশ্রণের’ কাহিনী মুখ্য ভূমিকা রাখলেও এর সুনির্দিষ্ট রাজনৈতিক, সামাজিক, অর্থনৈতিক, ধর্মীয় ও সামরিক কারণ ছিল।

সিপাহী বিদ্রোহ

ব্যারাকপুর থেকে মীরাট (১০ মে, ১৮৫৮) এবং সেখান থেকে দিল্লিতে (১১ মে, ১৮৫৮) বিস্তার লাভ করে। বিদ্রোহী সিপাহীরা ১১ মে দিল্লীর লালকেল্লা দখল করে দ্বিতীয় বাহাদুর শাহ জাফরকে হিন্দুস্তানের সম্রাট বলে ঘোষণা করে। মীরাট ও দিল্লিতে সিপাহীরা ব্রিটিশ অফিসারদের হত্যা করে। ক্রমে এ বিদ্রোহ দ্রূত গতিতে ফিরোজপুর, মুজাফফরনগর, পাঞ্জাব, নৌসেরা, হতমর্দান, অযোধ্যা, মথুরা, রুরকী, লক্ষ্ণৌ, বেরিলী, শাহজাহানপুর, মোরাদাবাদ, আজমপুর, কানপুর, এলাহাবাদ, ফৈজাবাদ, ফতেহপুর, ফতেহগড় ও অন্যান্য বহু স্থানে ছড়িয়ে পড়ে। একক কোনো নেতৃত্বে এই বিদ্রোহ পরিচালিত না হলেও, কানপুরের নানা সাহেব, তাঁতিয়া তোপী, মঙ্গল পাণ্ডে, আজিমউল্লাহ, ভগত সিং ও ঝাঁসির রানী লক্ষ্ণী বাঈ গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা রাখেন। ১৮৫৭ সালে ২১ সেপ্টেম্বর ইংরেজ বাহিনী দিল্লী দখল করে সম্রাটকে সপরিবারে বন্দি করে এবং তাঁর দুই পুত্র ও এক পৌত্রকে বিনা বিচারে হত্যা করে। ১৮৫৮ সালের জানুয়ারি মাসে বৃদ্ধ সম্রাটকে রেঙ্গুনে নির্বাসিত করা হয় এবং সেখানেই ১৮৬২ সালে তাঁর মৃত্যু হয়। ইংরেজরা এই অভূতপূর্ব বিদ্রোহকে নৃশংস, বর্বর ও নির্দয়ভাবে দমন করে। দেশীয় সৈন্যদের কোনো একক নেতৃত্ব না থাকা, ব্রিটিশ বাহিনির দক্ষ ও চৌকসভাবে যুদ্ধ পরিচালনা, স্থানীয় জমিদারদের ব্রিটিশসাম্রাজ্যের পক্ষ অবলম্বন, শিখ ও নেপালি সৈন্যদের সমর্থন দান প্রভৃতিকে মূলত এই বিদ্রোহ ব্যর্থ হবার কারণ বলে মনে করা হয়। বিদ্রোহ দমন হওয়ার পর, মহারাণী ভিক্টোরিয়া ১ নভেম্বর, ১৮৫৮ সালে এক ঘোষণা বলে ভারত শাসন বিধি ১৮৫৮ (India Act of 1858) জারি করেন। এর ফলে ভারতবর্ষে ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানির শাসন অবসান ঘটে এবং ব্রিটিশ রাজের প্রত্যক্ষ শাসন শুরু হয়। লর্ড ক্যানিংকে ভারতের প্রথম ভাইসরয় ঘোষণা করা হয় এবং ব্রিটিশ মন্ত্রিসভার একজন সদস্যকে ভারত সচিব করা হয়।

ক্যানিং ১৮৫৯ সালে লর্ড ডালহৌসি কর্তৃক প্রণিত স্বত্ব-বিলোপ নীতি (Doctrine of Lapse) বিলুপ্ত করেন। তিনি ১৮৫৮ সালে ভারতীয় ফৌজদারি বিধি (Indian Penal Code 1858) ও ১৮৫৯ সালে Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC 1859) প্রণয়ন করেন। ১৮৬১ সালে তিনি Indian Council Act, 1861 ও Indian High Courts Act, 1861 প্রণয়ন করেন। তাঁর শাসন আমলে ১৮৫৯-৬০ সালে বাংলায় নীল বিদ্রোহ দেখা দেয়।

  1. লর্ড এলগিন (১৮৬২-৬৩)
  2. লর্ড জন লরেন্স (১৮৬৪-৬৯): তিনি ১৯৬৮ সালে পাঞ্জাব প্রজাস্বত্ব আইন ও অযোধ্যা প্রজাস্বত্ব আইন পাস করেন। তার সময়ে উড়িষ্যায় এক মারাত্নক দুর্ভিক্ষের (১৮৬৫-৬৬) ফলে প্রায় দশ লক্ষ লোক মারা যায়।
  3. লর্ড মেয়ো (১৮৬৯-৭২): ভারতীয় প্রজাদের করভারে জর্জরিত করে এবং ব্যয়সঙ্কোচ নীতি গ্রহন করে রাজস্ব বৃদ্ধি করেন। তিনি আজমীরে মেয়ো কলেজ এবং লাহোর ও রাজকোটে কলেজ স্থাপন করেন। ১৮৭২ সালে লর্ড মেয়ো আন্দামানে দ্বীপান্তরদণ্ডে দণ্ডিত ব্যক্তিদের বাসস্থান পরিদর্শনকালে জনৈক পাঠান কয়েদির আকষ্মিক ছুরিকাঘাতে মৃত্যুবরণ করেন।
  4. লর্ড নর্থব্রুক (১৮৭২-৭৬): নর্থব্রুক লাইসেন্স কর, মাদ্রাজে গৃহকর, বোম্বাইয়ের অ-কৃষি কর এবং মধ্য প্রদেশের পাণ্ডারি কর লোপ করেন। বৃটিশ মন্ত্রিসভা, বিশেষকরে তৎকালীন ভারত সচিব জর্জ ক্যাম্পবেল, ডিউক অব আরগিলের সাথে মতানৈক্যের কারনে ১৮৭৬ সালে ভাইসরয়ের পদ থেকে পদত্যাগ করেন।
  5. লর্ড লিটন (Lord Lytton) (১৮৭৬-৮০)
  6. লর্ড রিপন (Lord Rippon) (১৮৮০-৮৪)
  7. লর্ড ডাফেরিন (Lord Dufferin) (১৮৮৪-৮৮)
  8. লর্ড ল্যান্ডসডোন (Lord Landsdowne) (১৮৮৮-৯৪)
  9. লর্ড এলগিন-২ (Lord Elgin-II) (১৮৯৪-১৮৯৯)
  10. লর্ড কার্জন (Lord Curzon) (১৮৯৯-১৯০৫)
  11. লর্ড মিন্টো-২ (Lord Minto II) (১৯০৫-১৯১০)
  12. লর্ড হার্ডিং-২ (Lord Hardinge II) (১৯১০-১৬)
  13. লর্ড চেমসফোর্ড (Lord Chelmsford) (১৯১৬-২১)
  14. লর্ড রিডিং (Lord Reading) (১৯২১-২৬)
  15. লর্ড আরউইন (Lord Irwin) (১৯২৬-৩১)
  16. লর্ড উইলিংডন (Lord Willingdon) (১৯৩১-৩৬)
  17. লর্ড লিনলিথগো (Lord Linlithgow) (১৯৩৬-৪৩)
  18. লর্ড ওয়াভেল (Lord Wavell) (১৯৪৩-৪৭)

CHAPTER 8 দেশ বিভাজন

দীর্ঘ ১৯০ বছর (১৭৫৭) ব্রিটিশদের গোলামীর পর ১৯৪৭ খ্রিস্টাব্দে দ্বি-জাতি তত্বের ভিত্তিতে ভারতীয় উপমহাদেশ বিভাজন হয়ে জন্ম হয় ভারত ও পাকিস্থান নামক দুটি স্বাধীন রাষ্ট্রের। ক্লিপটনের সীমান্ত নির্ণয়ে তৈরি হলো ভারত ও পাকিস্থানের বির্তকিত ভূখন্ড। হিন্দু-মুসলিম চলমান দাঙ্গা-হাঙ্গামার ফলেই এই দেশ বিভাজন।

  • ১৯৪৮
    যেই বাংলার মানুষের ভোটে পাকিস্তান আসল, স্বাধীনতার আট মাসেও মোহাম্মদ আলী জিন্নাহ তার ৫৫% জনগনের কোন খোঁজই রাখলেন না। যখন আট মাস পরে তাঁর সময় হল ঢাকায় পদধুলি দেবার, তিনি বললেন – “উর্দু এবং একমাত্র উর্দুই হবে পাকিস্তানের একমাত্র রাষ্ট্র ভাষা”। রাষ্ট্র ভাষা আন্দোলনের শুরু।
  • ১৯৪৯
    ঢাকায় মুসলিম লীগের সোহরোওয়ারদি গ্রুপের “পূর্ব পাকিস্তান আওয়ামী মুসলিম” গঠন। মুল সংগঠক মাওলানা আব্দুল খান ভাসানি, টাঙ্গাইলের শামসুল হক এবং (পুরান) ঢাকার ইয়ার মোহাম্মদ খান।
  • ১৯৫১
    সোহরাওয়ারদির নেতৃত্বে “নিখিল পাকিস্তান আওয়ামী মুসলিম” গঠন।
  • ১৯৫২
    ভাষা আন্দোলন।
  • ১৯৫৩
    পূর্ব বাংলার “Advocate General” এর পদ থেকে শের এ বাংলা এ কে ফজলুল হকের ইস্তফা। নতুন দল গঠন – নাম “কৃষক শ্রমিক পার্টি” (K.S.P.)।
  • ১৯৫৪
    ঐতিহাসিক নির্বাচন। হক-ভাসানি – সোহরোওয়ারদি গঠন করলেন “যুক্ত ফ্রন্ট” – মুসলিম লীগের ভরাডুবি। ২৩৭ টি মুসলিম আসনের মধ্যে যুক্তফ্রন্ট ২২৩ আসনে জয়লাভ করে। মুসলিম লীগ পায় মাত্র ৯ টি আসন। চট্টগ্রামের ফজলুল কাদের চৌধুরী (সাকাচৌ এর পিতা) মুসলিম লীগে যোগদান করে তাদের আসন সংখ্যা ১০ এ উন্নীত করেন। শের এ বাংলা এ কে ফজলুল হক পূর্ব বাংলার মুখ্য মন্ত্রী।
  • ১৯৫৪-৫৮
    অকথিত চার বছর। বাংলাদেশের ইতিহাস নিয়ে যারা কথা বলেন, তাঁরা এই চার বছরের কথা সাবধানে এড়িয়ে যান। একদিকে পশ্চিম পাকিস্তানের প্রাসাদ ষড়যন্ত্র, অপরদিকে পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের নেতৃত্বের কোন্দল – সব মিলিয়ে জটিল অবস্থা। আইয়ুব খান মার্শাল ল’ জারি করে। ১৯৫৮ সালের ২৩শে সেপ্টেম্বর পূর্ব পাকিস্তান প্রাদেশিক পরিষদে বিরোধী দলীয় সদস্যদের আক্রমণ/মারামারি – ফলশ্রুতিতে আওয়ামী লীগ দলীয় সাংসদ ও ডেপুটি স্পীকার শাহেদ আলীর মৃত্যু। পাকিস্তানীরা ঠিক এই সুযোগটিই খুঁজছিল। অবশেষে সামরিক শাসন। প্রথমে জেনারেল (অবঃ) ইস্কান্দার মীর্জা ও পরে আইয়ুব খান পাকিস্তানের প্রধান সামরিক আইন প্রশাসক। প্রায় সমস্ত রাজনৈতিক নেতৃবৃন্দ কারাগারে বন্দী।
  • ১৯৬২
    শের এ বাংলা এ কে ফজলুল হকের মৃত্যু। “শরীফ শিক্ষা কমিশনের” বিরুদ্ধে পূর্ব পাকিস্তানে ব্যাপক ছাত্র আন্দোলন।
  • ১৯৬৩
    বৈরুতে হোসেন শহীদ সোহরোওয়ারদির রহস্যজনক মৃত্যু।
  • ১৯৬৫
    প্রেসিডেন্ট “নির্বাচনে” মিসেস ফাতেমা জিন্নাহকে পরাজিত করে আইয়ুব খান পাকিস্তানের প্রেসিডেন্ট নির্বাচিত।
  • ১৯৬৫
    পাক ভারত যুদ্ধ। পূর্ব পাকিস্তান অরক্ষিত। তাসখন্দ চুক্তির মাধ্যমে যুদ্ধের সমাপ্তি। আইয়ুব খানের রাজনৈতিক পরাজয়।
  • ১৯৬৬
    আইয়ুব খান “তাসখন্দ চুক্তি” জায়েজ করার জন্য এক গোল টেবিল বৈঠক ডাকলেন। সেখানে শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানের “ছয় দফা” প্রস্তাব উত্থাপন। গোল টেবিল বৈঠক ব্যার্থ। আইয়ুব খানের চোখ রাঙ্গানি – “অস্ত্রের ভাষায় ছয় দফার জবাব দেওয়া হবে”।
  • ১৯৬৬-৬৭
    ছয় দফা পূর্ব পাকিস্তানে ব্যাপক জনপ্রিয়। শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান গ্রেপ্তার।
  • ১৯৬৭-৬৮
    পাকিস্তান সরকারের মামলা – “State vs. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and others” বা“আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলা”। অভিযোগ – পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের কিছু সামরিক সদস্য ও রাজনিতিবিদ ত্রিপুরার রাজধানী আগরতলা ও বিভিন্নস্থানে গোপন বৈঠক করেছেন “বাংলাদেশ” নামের এক দেশ প্রতিষ্ঠার জন্য। প্রায় পনেরশত গ্রেপ্তার।
  • ১৯৬৮-৬৯
    মাওলানা ভাসানির নেতৃত্বে পূর্ব পাকিস্তানে ব্যাপক আন্দোলন।

১৯৬৯ সালের ২০শে জানুয়ারি পুলিশের গুলিতে ছাত্র নেতা আসাদের মৃত্যু (পুরো নাম – আমানুল্লাহ মোহাম্মদ আসাদুজ্জামান)। ১৫-ই ফেব্রুয়ারি এই মামলার আসামি সার্জেন্ট জহুরুল হক এক পাকিস্তানী হাবিলদারেরে গুলিতে বন্দী অবস্থায় নিহত। পূর্ব পাকিস্তান উত্তাল। অবশেষে ২২শে বেব্রুয়ারি মামলা প্রত্যাহার। ২৩ তারিখে এক বিশাল জনসভায় শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানকে “বঙ্গবন্ধু” উপাধি প্রদান। Time Magazine-এ আইয়ুব পতনের কৃতিত্ব দিয়ে মাওলানা ভাসানিকে নিয়ে প্রচ্ছদ প্রতিবেদন – তাঁকে উপাধি দেওয়া হল “ Prophet of Violence”। আইয়ুবের পতন – ইয়াহিয়া খান ক্ষমতা নিলেন।

১৯৭০ সালে ইয়াহিয়া খান অবশেষে পাকিস্তানের ইতিহাসে প্রথমবারের মত দেশ ব্যাপী নির্বাচন দিলেন – “এক মাথা এক ভোট”। পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের সবচেয়ে বড় দল পূর্ব পাকিস্তান আওয়ামী লীগ নিরঙ্কুশ সংখ্যাগরিষ্ঠতা অর্জন করে। দলটি পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের ১৬৯ টি আসন হতে ১৬৭ টি আসনে জয়লাভ করে এবং ৩১৩ আসনবিশিষ্ট জাতীয় পরিষদে সংখ্যাগরিষ্ঠতা পায়, যা আওয়ামী লীগকে সরকার গঠনের অধিকার প্রদান করে। কিন্তু নির্বাচনে দ্বিতীয় সংখ্যাগরিষ্ঠতাপ্রাপ্ত দল পাকিস্তান পিপলস পার্টির নেতা জুলফিকার আলী ভুট্টো শেখ মুজিবের পাকিস্তানের প্রধানমন্ত্রী হওয়ার বিরোধিতা করেন। তিনি প্রস্তাব করেন পাকিস্তানের দুই প্রদেশের জন্যে থাকবে দু’জন প্রধানমন্ত্রী। “এক ইউনিট কাঠামো” নিয়ে ক্ষুব্ধ পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের মানুষের মধ্যে এরূপ অভিনব প্রস্তাব নতুন করে ক্ষোভের সঞ্চার করে। ভুট্টো মুজিবের ৬-দফা দাবি মেনে নিতেও অস্বীকৃতি প্রকাশ করেন।

CHAPTER 9 স্বাধীনতা যুদ্ধঃ বাংলাদেশ এর সূচনা

১৯৭১ সালের ৭ মার্চ বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান ঢাকার রেসকোর্স ময়দানে (বর্তমান সোহরাওয়ার্দী উদ্যান) এক ঐতিহাসিক ভাষণ প্রদান করেন।

১৯৭১ সালের ১৭ এপ্রিল মুক্তিযুদ্ধ পরিচালনার জন্য অস্থায়ী বাংলাদেশ সরকারের আনুষ্ঠানিক প্রতিষ্ঠা হয় কুষ্টিয়া জেলার মেহেরপুর মহকুমা (বর্তমানে জেলা) বৈদ্যনাথতলার অন্তর্গত ভবেরপাড়া (বর্তমান মুজিবনগর) গ্রামে। শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান এর অনুপস্থিতিতে তাঁকে রাষ্ট্রপতি করে সরকার গঠন করা হয়। অস্থায়ী রাষ্ট্রপতির দায়িত্ব নেন সৈয়দ নজরুল ইসলাম এবং প্রধানমন্ত্রীর দায়িত্ব অর্পিত হয় তাজউদ্দিন আহমদের উপর। বাংলাদেশের প্রথম সরকার দেশি-বিদেশি সাংবাদিকের সামনে শপথ গ্রহণ করে আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে দায়িত্ব পালন শুরু করে। এই শপথ গ্রহণ অনুষ্ঠানে স্বাধীনতার ঘোষণাপত্র পাঠের মাধ্যমে ২৬ মার্চ হতে বাংলাদেশকে আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে স্বাধীন সার্বভৌম রাষ্ট্র হিসাবে ঘোষণা করা হয়।

১৯৭১ সালের ২৫ মার্চ রাতে পাকিস্তানি সেনাবাহিনী অপারেশন সার্চলাইট আরম্ভ করে যার উদ্দেশ্য ছিল বাঙালি প্রতিরোধ গুঁড়িয়ে দেয়া। এরই অংশ হিসাবে সামরিক বাহিনীর বাঙালি সদস্যদের নিরস্ত্র করে হত্যা করা হয়, ছাত্র ও বুদ্ধিজীবীদের নিধন করা হয় এবং সারা বাংলাদেশে নির্বিচারে সাধারণ মানুষ হত্যা করা হয়। হত্যাকাণ্ডের খবর যাতে পৃথিবীর অন্যান্য দেশে না পৌঁছায় সে লক্ষ্যে ২৫ মার্চের আগেই বিদেশি সাংবাদিকদের ঢাকা পরিত্যাগে বাধ্য করা হয়। তারপরও সাংবাদিক সাইমন ড্রিং জীবনের ঝুঁকি নিয়ে ঢাকায় অবস্থান করে ওয়াশিংটন পোস্টের মাধ্যমে সারা পৃথিবীকে এই গণহত্যার খবর জানিয়েছিলেন। যদিও এই হত্যাযজ্ঞের মূল কেন্দ্রবিন্দু ছিল ঢাকা, বাঙালি হত্যা পুরো দেশজুড়ে চালানো হয়। ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের আবাসিক হলগুলো ছিল তাদের বিশেষ লক্ষ্য। একমাত্র হিন্দু আবাসিক হল – জগন্নাথ হল – পুরোপুরি ধ্বংস করে দেয় পাকিস্তানি সেনাবাহিনী। এতে ৬০০ থেকে ৭০০ আবাসিক ছাত্র নিহত হয়। যদিও পাকিস্তানি সেনাবাহিনী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে কোনো ধরনের ঠাণ্ডা মাথার হত্যাকাণ্ডের কথা অস্বীকার করেছে, তবে হামিদুর রহমান কমিশনের মতে বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে পাকিস্তানি সেনাবাহিনী ব্যাপক শক্তি প্রয়োগ করেছিলো। জগন্নাথ হল এবং অন্যান্য ছাত্র হলগুলোতে পাকিস্তানিদের হত্যাযজ্ঞের চিত্র ভিডিওটেপে ধারণ করেন তদানীন্তন পূর্ব পাকিস্তান ইউনিভার্সিটি অব ইঞ্জিনিয়ারিং এন্ড টেকনোলজি (বর্তমান বুয়েট) এর প্রফেসর নূরুল উলা।

১৯৭১ সালের ২৬ মার্চ স্বাধীন বাংলা বেতার কেন্দ্র থেকে স্বাধীনতার ঘোষণা প্রচারিত হয়।

১৯৭১ সালের ১৬ আগস্ট মুক্তিবাহিনীর নৌ-কমান্ডোরা অপারেশন জ্যাকপটের মাধ্যমে চট্টগ্রাম বন্দরে নোঙ্গর করে থাকা পাকিস্তানি যুদ্ধজাহাজগুলো মাইন দিয়ে ধ্বংস করে দেয়।

১৯৭১ সালের ৩ ডিসেম্বর বিকেল পাঁচটায় রেডিও পাকিস্তান সংক্ষিপ্ত এক বিশেষ সংবাদ প্রচার করে যে “ভারত পশ্চিম পাকিস্তানের সীমান্তজুড়ে আক্রমণ শুরু করেছে। বিস্তারিত খবর এখনো আসছে।” পাঁচটা ৯ মিনিটে পেশোয়ার বিমানবন্দর থেকে ১২টি যুদ্ধবিমান উড়ে যায় কাশ্মীরের শ্রীনগর ও অনন্তপুরের উদ্দেশ্যে এবং সারগোদা বিমানঘাঁটি থেকে আটটি মিরেজ বিমান উড়ে যায় অমৃতসর ও পাঠানকোটের দিকে। দুটি যুদ্ধবিমান বিশেষভাবে প্রেরিত হয় ভারতীয় ভূখণ্ডের গভীরে আগ্রায় আঘাত করার উদ্দেশ্যে। মোট ৩২টি যুদ্ধবিমান অংশ নেয় এই আক্রমণে। মন্ত্রিসভার জরুরি বৈঠকের পর মধ্যরাত্রির কিছু পরে প্রধানমন্ত্রী ইন্দিরা গান্ধী বেতার বক্তৃতায় জরুরি অবস্থা ঘোষণা করে বলেন, এতদিন ধরে “বাংলাদেশে যে যুদ্ধ চলে আসছিল তা ভারতের বিরুদ্ধে যুদ্ধে পরিণত হয়েছে।” আনুষ্ঠানিক যুদ্ধ ঘোষণার মাত্র ১৩ দিনের মাথায় যৌথবাহিনী ঢাকার দোরগোড়ায় পৌঁছে যায়। এর আগেই বিমান হামলা চালিয়ে পাকিস্তানি বিমানবাহিনীকে পরাস্ত করে ঢাকার সকল সামরিক বিমান ঘাঁটির রানওয়ে বিধ্বস্ত করে দেয়া হয়। তৎকালীন পাকিস্তানি উর্ধ্বতন কর্মকর্তারা পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান থেকে আশ্বাস পেয়েছিলেন উত্তরে চীন ও দক্ষিণে মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র থেকে তাঁদের জন্য সহায়তা আসবে, কিন্তু বাস্তবে তার দেখা মেলেনি।

১৯৭১ সালের ১৬ ডিসেম্বর ঢাকার রেসকোর্স ময়দানে পাকিস্তানি সামরিক কর্মকর্তারা ৯৩,০০০ হাজার সৈন্যসহ আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে আত্মসমর্পণ করেন। এরই মাধ্যমে নয় মাস ব্যাপী রক্তক্ষয়ী মুক্তিযুদ্ধের অবসান ঘটে; প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয় বাঙালি জাতির প্রথম স্বাধীন রাষ্ট্র বাংলাদেশ।

3 Things Missing From Your Marketing

 

You don’t want to have any holes in your marketing strategy. Like your immune system, it’s not working to the best of its ability if there are key components missing.

All you have to do is walk by someone that’s sick and you’ll be eating chicken noodle soup and drinking cough syrup and DayQuil like it’s water. Don’t derail your marketing campaign by not taking advantage of some key components.

Lack of Knowledge About Buyer Personas

This should be common knowledge. You probably won’t be in business if you didn’t know who your buyer personas are. Just knowing one minimal detail about them isn’t going to be very helpful.

You need to know as much about them as you possibly can. Now I’m not telling you to stalk them, but ask them questions to learn more about them. Dig deeper to gain a better understanding of what their needs and wants are.

Now, this isn’t something that will just happen overnight. You may want to conduct buyer persona interviews.

Learn about their demographics, pain points, background, shopping preferences, gender, age range, job role, etc. There’s a lot to learn about your target audience and customers.

Just don’t forget to use that knowledge to engage, educate and interact with them. This knowledge could bring you one step closer to closing a sale or forging a relationship with them.

Context

We are in the age of the customer. It’s all about taking what you know about your customers and using that information to your advantage.

Don’t forget to use what you know to target your visitors. Get them to reconvert. Keep them coming back to your website. Be a resource for them.

According to Forrester and Silverpop, “They now expect companies to know where they’ve been, what they’ve seen, and what they’ve accepted or rejected.”

Not sure what to do with all that information you have about your visitors and leads? Thank goodness for the creation of content.

Content and context go hand in hand. Use what you know about their needs, wants and interests to create content that will be attractive to them. No one wants to read something that has no relevance to him or her.

A Plan

What actions are you going to take? Marketing isn’t something you can just set and forget. Also, one size does not fit all.

Let’s think of inbound marketing in a different light. Think of marketing like a project, something that you have to build and put together. Maybe you’re building a house or if you’re like me trying to assemble a bookcase from Ikea. There are directions you will need to follow.

The same theory applies to marketing. Know what steps you’re going to take before you jump right in.

You may want to develop a blog and offer editorial calendar as well as a social media publishing schedule to ensure that you’re staying on track and you’re actively engaging with your audience.

There is nothing worse than not having an active blog or social media profiles.

Create a plan that highlights your key activities that will ensure that you’re reaching your traffic and lead goals. How many emails are you going to send each month? How many landing pages are you going to create? How often are you going to blog? How many offers are you going to release this month?

These are all questions you might want to ask yourself and adjust as you progress through the month to ensure that you’re on track to meeting your goals.

25 Psychological Life Hacks that Will Help You Lead in Life

Social situations are among the most important in our lives. Yet, there is a huge chance that you are oblivious to the plethora of unwritten social rules that structure everybody’s behavior. Failing to comply with these cultural imprints can cause irreversible damage. Just following them blindly will not get you ahead. Hacking them, however, will give you the best results possible. Therefore we bring to you these – 25 psychological life hacks that will help you gain the advantage in social situations.

 

1) Assume comfort in any interaction.

Our brain is an incredibly complicated instrument. Our relationship with it is a love-hate one. We think we have control over it but usually, something unconscious dictates our actions.

In most of our social interactions, we find it difficult to feel comfortable among strangers because our brain tries to protect us from exposure.

This, however, isn’t helping us when trying to be social and meet new people, is it?

This is why assuming comfort is so powerful. Commanding your brain to feel that you already know the person you are about to meet puts you in a position of advantage. It increases the chances of people showing interest in you and consequently even liking you.

2) Pay attention to people’s feet when you are approaching them.

Interrupting people when they are in the middle of an important conversation is one of the most annoying things to do. It shows that you have zero knowledge of social dynamics which will lead to unpleasant social situations.

When you approach a group of people while in a conversation, pay attention to their bodies. If they turn only their torsos and not their feet, it means they are in the middle of an important conversation and they don’t want you to interrupt them.

If they turn both torso and feet, it means you are welcome. This is extremely important, because the right timing in such situations may put you in a position of advantage, especially if the conversation was boring for both sides.

3) Whenever you have an argument with someone, stand next to them and not in front of them.

We’ve all been in situations where out of nowhere the conversation started escalating.

Unless you love drama, I would suggest you avoid these situations. You might have the best argument in the world, but usually, people get irritated when they feel they are wrong.

So, whenever you feel that the argument you have with another person (especially friends – it’s not cool to fight with friends) creates tension, move next to them. You won’t appear much of a threat, and they will eventually calm down.

4) Whenever you need a favor, open with “I need your help.”

Admit it. We all love to get others to do stuff for us. Either because we are lazy, or because we really need some help to complete a task.

Social dynamics show that when it comes to platonic relationships, nobody really likes an asshole. So whenever you need a favor, start your sentence with “I need your help.”

In most cases, people will accept your request and help you out. This occurs because we don’t really like the guilt of not helping someone out and we do like to be the one who is capable of helping.

5) If you want people to feel good, give them validation. Rephrase what they just told you.

We love validation. Most of our actions in life are the outcome of our need for validation. So what is the best way to get people to like you? Give them what they need of course. A simple example is when you are in a conversation with another person and he says something really important to him. After he finishes, rephrase what he just said in your own words. This will make him think that you are a good listener and that you are really interested in him. It makes him feel he is the center of attention. That’s validation right there.

6) If you want to get a positive response from someone, nod while you talk.

This one is extremely powerful and also a bit manipulative especially if the person is suggestive. So use it with your own responsibility and in an ethical way. Getting a positive response from someone is usually what we want. Whether it is making a sale, or promoting a viewpoint, we always want people to get on board. Nodding while you try to deliver your message is a powerful way to get the person to agree with you. People usually like mimicking, so they will most probably nod back while you talk. This will subsequently communicate to their brains that they have to agree with you.

7) Want to see if someone is paying attention to what you are saying? Fold your arms.

Usually when we are in the middle of a conversation and especially if we talk about something very important to us, we get lost in our talking and rarely pay attention to whether the other person is following or not. So instead of losing time talking to a person who is distracted and might not even be interested in what you are saying, do this. Fold your arms while talking and see if the other person follows your movements. If the other person is observing you and pays attention, they will most likely mimic you.

8) Having trouble remembering names? Repeat the other person’s name during the conversation.

I suck at remembering names. I usually don’t even listen to the other person when he says his name the moment we get introduced to each other. So usually, I ask a friend to introduce himself to the person so I can listen to his name. But then I forget it again. Awkward. Remembering names is very important because we feel important when someone mentions us. So the moment you meet someone repeat his name. Example: “Hi my name is Alex” “Nice to meet you Alex. So, Alex how do you know John?” And continue to repeat his name throughout the conversation.

9) If you ask someone a question and they only partially answer, just wait. They will keep talking.

This is a very common situation when you don’t know the other person that well or your question wasn’t clear enough. If they finish the answer without providing a full answer, just wait. Stay silent and keep eye contact. If the tension becomes unbearable, raise your eyebrows. It puts a bit of pressure on them but it communicates that you show interest. It also sub-communicates that you are a person that usually gets what he wants.

10) People usually focus on the emotion and not on the subject.

This is very useful in public speaking but also in building rapport with an acquaintance. Whenever you introduce yourself to new people, most probably they have already heard what you are about to say. Well, that’s not a problem. Even if you want to talk about the most boring topic in the world, make sure of one thing: Always try to evoke emotions. From my experience, the 3 emotions that you want to evoke are • ExcitementLaughter: Everyone likes to laugh • Intrigue: Leave a little mystery so that the other person has to invest energy to hear more. Don’t be purposely distant, but avoid verbal diarrhea.

There are many techniques to turn a boring conversation into an exciting and intriguing one, but here are a couple of my favorites:

Pause:

A lot of the time when we want to keep someone’s attention, we tend to talk really fast, but this sub-communicates neediness and nervousness. A well-placed pause can create tension that makes your words have more gravitas.

Tone and Inflection:

No one finds monotone exciting. Switch up your tone of voice from deep for declarative statements, to high inflection when you want to leave them guessing.

Paint pictures and compose symphonies in their mind with sensory details:

When telling a story, take the person you’re talking to on an emotional journey by describing the colors, sounds, textures, tastes, smells, and how they made you feel. This will cause their mirror-neurons to fire off, making it easier for them to imagine actually being there with you.

So if you want to be memorable, focus on the emotion behind the words. People may forget what you say, but they will never forget how you make them feel.

11) Confidence is more important than knowledge.

Two young candidates walked into the interview office to apply for the same job. The first one had a Ph.D., two Masters and a Bachelor’s degree. The second one had just a Bachelor. The first one was kind of shy, didn’t talk much, his body language was turned inward. The second one had an upright posture, was looking the interviewers directly in the eyes, showed a lot of interest in the job and his answers where emitting confidence. We don’t have to tell you who got the job.

12) Fake it until you make it.

No one became an expert on anything overnight. However, the learning process in everything you do is accelerated by commanding your brain to think what you want it to think. In simple words. You are what you believe you are. • You are confident if you believe you are confident • You are attractive if you believe you are attractive • You are extrovert if you believe you are extrovert.

13) Pose in a Power Stance.

This is similar to the previous point but more concrete than a mantra or belief. Go stand in the mirror, put your hands on your hips, thrust your pelvis forward, pull your shoulders up, back and down, open your chest, tilt your head up, and force the biggest smile you can possibly manage to fit across your face. Even if you consciously know you’re just faking it, your brain can’t tell the difference and will release endorphins to match your body position. This can feel silly, but it really works.

14) If you want to be persuasive, try and reduce the use of the words “I think” and “I believe.”

I don’t really feel the need to elaborate on this one. Obviously, these words do not evoke confidence and the other person will most probably not take you seriously. Change them to ‘I know’ and ‘I will’ instead.

15) A clean and organized environment affects your mood, productivity, and others perception of who you are.

How many times have you wakened up without any motivation at all? How many times have you started working on something without being able to get focused and inspired? Next time this happens, take a look around you. Is your environment clean and well-organized? If not, take some minutes to clean it up and put everything into place. You will feel refreshed and reborn and productivity will spark immediately. But not only that, you will come across as caring and punctual, two highly esteemed traits. Why do think most of the big companies pay so much attention to creating the best working environment for their employees? They know what makes them happy and how it affects their productivity.

16) Want to find out which people are close to each other within a group and who is perceived as the leader?

Pay attention to who is looking at each other when everyone in the group laughs at a joke. People instinctively look at and agree with the person they feel closest to within the group.

17) Whenever you call a person you want to meet, show excitement!

Always have this in mind. Excitement is contagious. Why do you think the music video from Pharrell Williams – “Happy” got so many views and so many people were talking about it?

People love excitement! It is like an escape from their boring lives. Never forget that.

(You can mirror this and show disappointment if somebody lets you down, making them painfully aware of their hurtful actions.)

18) Want to build rapport and gain respect? Match body language.

This is quite a common topic among body language experts and works well if you want to gain respect from a person that has high value.

Example:

You are in a social situation where a person has higher value among others within the group. He is the center of attention and he totally enjoys it. How do you match his value? By befriending him! If you want his respect and attention the best thing to do when you approach him is to match his body language and speaking patterns. If he has open body language and he talks with excitement and joy, don’t go there with crossed arms and with an attitude of negating his words. Approach him with the same amount of excitement and show openness and interest. Want more insights on body language?

19) When someone insults you, either ignore him or mock him. Never lose temper. Always control the frame.

Haters are everywhere. The more you feed them with hate, the stronger they become. Never lose your temper. This is a great example of how to deal with a hater. Enjoy!

20) Stand up straight, have warm hands and always keep eye contact.

  • Keep a straight posture and walk like a born leader. This sub-communicates confidence and others will respect you automatically.
  • Keep your hands out of your pockets. If you don’t know what to do with them, it is better to fold your arms rather than keep them in your pockets.
  • Keep your hands warm. If you have a warm hand when you shake somebody’s hand, you immediately become a more desirable person to get along with. Secret Tip – wash your hands with warm water often to keep them warm or take cold showers.
  • You have heard this a thousand times. Here is the 1001st. – never lose eye contact! Losing eye contact is like losing your confidence. One cool trick when first meeting someone is to focus on their eye color and smile at the same time. The eyes are the gateway to the soul, and taking the extra second to gaze shows you are confident and present. (Be sure to move your eyes away periodically, a constant stare will creep people out.)

21) The Benjamin Franklin Effect.

The Ben Franklin effect is a psychological finding:

A person who has done someone a favor is more likely to do that person another favor than they would be if they had received a favor from that person. Similarly, one who harms another is more willing to harm them again than the victim is to retaliate.

This is an unbelievable finding. In social situations, you can hack this by making someone do something small for you, then asking for your true favor. It’s such a small favor that they will say yes, and due to cognitive dissonance, their brain will rationalize that they must like you enough to do you a favor in the first place. This is also called the foot-in-the-door effect.

22) Don’t be afraid to touch another person.

Touching someone on the shoulder or their knees, creates an emotional and physical bond. Especially during moments of joy, laughter and excitement touching positively reinforce these traits. If you’re uncomfortable with touching, remember 12, fake it until you make it.

23) Use the door-in-the-face hack.

The opposite of foot-in-the-door. Make an unreasonably large request that will most likely be turned down (but if it isn’t then that’s even better!), and follow up with your true intended, more reasonable request. The other person will be more likely to agree to the second request.

24) Always frame a request as a choice.

No one likes to feel pressured into doing something they don’t want to do. By subtlety rephrasing a request, you can make the person feel like they came to the decision on their own terms.

Homeless people who say things like, “it’s up to you if you want to donate or not” end up making more money than those who simply ask for money. The same is generally true for bands that offer “pay what you want” payment structures for their music. They know you can easily download their music for free off the internet, so they encourage you to pay what you feel is right.

A slightly more aggressive technique is the assumptive close:

This is a classic sales technique that can be used in any social situation. Instead of asking for permission, “do you want to donate/go on a date/get something to eat” assume that the person already does. Of course, you can’t just force someone to do something, but a leading question can nudge them in the right direction: “Would you like to donate 5 dollars or 10 dollars?”

Now instead of simply saying yes or no, they have to actively deny your request and feel like a naysayer.

25) If you work in a bar or in customer service of any kind…

Put a mirror behind you at the counter. When an angry customer approaches you, he will have to see himself in the mirror and will most probably calm down. Nobody likes ruining his image.

26) BONUS: Chew gum if you are nervous.

Evolutionarily speaking, our brains assume that if we are eating then we aren’t in any immediate danger, so the fight or flight response is weakened.

 

Thus, this psychological hacks will help you lead in life, in getting jobs in Bangladesh or anywhere in this world.

The Future of Digital Marketing is Already Here

How can the average, or even slightly advanced marketer take advantage of these new possibilities, achieving new levels of personalization and relevance in their own marketing campaigns?

1. Understand Behaviors and Marketing Context

There is so much data available to marketers today. There is data that the marketer has already captured from prior user engagement in their marketing automation or email platform, there is purchase activity captured in CRM or in homegrown customer database systems, there is first-party data from audience operating systems like Acxiom, and there is data from DMP/DSP firms like Turn or MediaMath. There is a tremendous amount of data to be gathered from social channels, review sites, in-store experiences, and elsewhere. All of this data should be utilized to keep marketers informed about customer behaviors and context within their “customer journey.”

multi-channel life

As the graphic above illustrates, today’s consumers move seamlessly across digital and offline channels.  According to a recent Experian QAS® survey, 36% of U.S. organizations interact with customers and prospects in five or more channels.

But, according to Experian’s 2013 Digital Marketer report, “fewer than 10% of brands are executing true cross-channel communications informed by one view of the customer.” That means that there’s a huge opportunity to increase relevancy for marketers.

2. Build Deep, Enduring Relationships with Customers Over Time

Let’s face it, it is frequently more cost-effective and easier to keep and grow an existing customer than it is to constantly acquire new customers. Marketers have traditionally been split into acquisition and retention teams, with the acquisition teams receiving the lion’s share of resources and budget.

I’d argue that marketing is awakening to the concept that they have tremendous assets in their current customer base – if they could only build deep, enduring relationships over time. It’s not a new concept; firms have always looked at the CLTV/LTV (customer lifetime value/lifetime value) metric. But in order to impact and improve the CLTV, a marketer must evaluate their entire customer journey and identify points of contact throughout that journey that can drive desired outcomes. Desired outcomes could include additional sales, upsells, reviews/advocates, social comments, renewals, and more – however you measure success.

The chart below illustrates how complex a customer journey can be.  Managing all these different touch points, over time and across channels, can be a daunting task. This is also where marketing automation platforms often come in, helping marketers begin to automate and orchestrate these myriad touch points to drive maximum results and build enduring relationships.

customer journey

3. Make Every Channel Personalized!

As marketers, we’ve steadily improved how well we personalize in the email space, familiarizing ourselves with tokens and dynamic content. These items call upon your database to help populate and provide a measure of personalization in each person’s inbox and are proven to dramatically improve conversion rates and return on your email campaigns. But remember that email is just one channel. How can a marketer personalize on all channels?

Start by curing your case of “website amnesia” – do you treat every website visitor the same, regardless of previous visits or their status as customers? These visitors might be your most loyal customers, yet you treat them as though you don’t remember them at all. How well does it feel when your favorite barista remembers your name and regular drink? That same positive customer experience can be replicated in digital marketing channels. Done right, it will elicit the same customer loyalty and deeper, more enduring customer relationships over time.

Website personalization can make your web and mobile channels as personal as your email.  With real-time personalization tools, marketers can engage even anonymous visitors with personalized content or calls-to-action that can potentially drive a 30% increase in conversion rates. Marketers can also personalize content for known visitors using rich marketing automation CRM information. Why not give your  VIP customers an enhanced experience? You might personalize the content based on behavioral/contextual data (as we discussed above), location, firmographics, DMP (data management platform) or first-party data from sources like Acxiom.

For example, a retailer could use real-time personalization to 1) identify where a customer is located and 2) offer that customer a “Free Shipping to ___” offer.

In Conclusion

We might not be scanning retinas at retail stores yet, but by listening to your customer’s behaviors and context, looking at the entire customer journey, building deep and enduring relationships, and applying personalization to more channels, today’s digital marketers can enter the new era.

What do you think? Is the future of digital marketing here?

24 Simple and Free SEO Tools to Instantly Improve Your Marketing

[dropcap]W[/dropcap]henever I dream up a home improvement project for my place, I end up working smartest and fastest when I have the right tools at my disposal. It’s amazing the difference a good tool can make – and the extra time it takes to get work done without a helpful tool.
Fast-forward to online marketing. How can you work smarter and faster with SEO? It starts with having the right tools.

We hire people who want to make the best things in the world. -Steve Jobs

I’ve collected a big sampling of the best free SEO tools on the market—tools with a wide variety of uses and covering a number of common needs. These tools are fast, free, and easy-to-use. I hope you find one or two (or twenty) you can put to good use, today.

24 Free and Easy SEO Tools

 

1. Google PageSpeed Insights

Check the speed and usability of your site on multiple devices

Enter a URL, and this tool will test the loading time and performance for desktop and for mobile, plus identify opportunities to improve (and pat you on the back for what you’re doing well). The mobile results also come with a user experience score, grading areas like tap targets and font sizes.

Alternatives: PingdomWebPageTest, and GTmetrix

2. Moz Local Listing Score

See how your local business looks online

Moz crunches data from more than 15 different sources—including Google, Foursquare, and Facebook—to score your brick-and-mortar business on how it looks online. Results come complete with actionable fixes for inconsistent or incomplete listings.

3. Keywordtool.io

700+ keyword ideas based on a single keyword

Enter a keyword, and the Keyword Tool provides a huge handful of long-tail keyword opportunities, organized alphabetically.

Alternative: Übersuggest

4. Google Analytics

Complete web stats and search insights

In addition to tracking pretty much every bit of traffic you could imagine on your website, Analytics also surfaces many keyword insights as to which terms people use to land on your pages.

5. Google Webmaster Tools + Bing Webmaster Tools

Constant website analysis, alerts, and error reports

These webmaster tools help give you a taste of what the two top search engines think of your site. It’s helpful to see any bugs, alerts, and indexing issues.

Pro tip: Each of these two tools requires a bit of installation on your site. If you’ve got a WordPress website, you can add the webmaster code automatically through a plugin like Jetpack or Yoast.

6. Open Site Explorer

Comprehensive link analysis

The free version of Open Site Explorer gives you a quick look a full range of link analysis, including a look at the most impactful links coming your way and your most linked-to pages.

7. Google Keyword Planner

Know what people search for

Enter a keyword or group of keywords into the tool, and Google will return all sorts of helpful stats to guide your keyword strategy: monthly search volume, competition, and even suggested terms you might not have considered.

8. Google.com in an Incognito Window

Discover auto-fill opportunities

Searching Google.com in an incognito window will bring up that all-familiar list of autofill options, many of which can help guide your keyword research. The incognito ensures that any customized search data Google stores when you’re signed in gets left out. Incognito may also be helpful to see where you truly rank on a results page for a certain term.

9. Google Trends

Changes in search volume for key terms

A quick browse or search through Google Trends can show you the hockey-stick rise of potential terms and SEO opportunities for your content.

10. QuickSprout Website Analyzer

Full analysis of your website

The QuickSprout tool does a comprehensive look at just about everything: SEO optimization, speed, tags, keywords, social, links, and even competitor comparisons.

11. Schema Creator

Uber-customize the way your search results appear

Create custom code so that your reviews, events, organizations, and people are displayed the way you want on search pages. Once you’ve created your schema code, copy and paste to your website, or try the free WordPress plugin for an even easier implementation.

12. SimilarWeb

View site stats for any domain

Use this tool to compare traffic between two websites, a helpful tool for competitor research.

free seo toolsWhenever I dream up a home improvement project for my place, I end up working smartest and fastest when I have the right tools at my disposal. It’s amazing the difference a good tool can make – and the extra time it takes to get work done without a helpful tool.

Fast-forward to online marketing. How can you work smarter and faster with SEO? 

It starts with having the right tools.

I’ve collected a big sampling of the best free SEO tools on the market—tools with a wide variety of uses and covering a number of common needs. These tools are fast, free, and easy-to-use. I hope you find one or two (or twenty) you can put to good use, today.

24 Free and Easy SEO Tools

1. Google PageSpeed Insights

Check the speed and usability of your site on multiple devices

Enter a URL, and this tool will test the loading time and performance for desktop and for mobile, plus identify opportunities to improve (and pat you on the back for what you’re doing well). The mobile results also come with a user experience score, grading areas like tap targets and font sizes.

pagespeed test

 Alternatives: PingdomWebPageTest, and GTmetrix

2. Moz Local Listing Score

See how your local business looks online

Moz crunches data from more than 15 different sources—including Google, Foursquare, and Facebook—to score your brick-and-mortar business on how it looks online. Results come complete with actionable fixes for inconsistent or incomplete listings.

local listing score

3. Keywordtool.io

700+ keyword ideas based on a single keyword

Enter a keyword, and the Keyword Tool provides a huge handful of long-tail keyword opportunities, organized alphabetically.

keywordtool.io

Alternative: Übersuggest

4. Google Analytics

Complete web stats and search insights

In addition to tracking pretty much every bit of traffic you could imagine on your website, Analytics also surfaces many keyword insights as to which terms people use to land on your pages.

analytics

Alternative: Piwik

5. Google Webmaster Tools + Bing Webmaster Tools

Constant website analysis, alerts, and error reports

These webmaster tools help give you a taste of what the two top search engines think of your site. It’s helpful to see any bugs, alerts, and indexing issues.

Pro tip: Each of these two tools requires a bit of installation on your site. If you’ve got a WordPress website, you can add the webmaster code automatically through a plugin like Jetpack or Yoast.

webmaster tools

6. Open Site Explorer

Comprehensive link analysis

The free version of Open Site Explorer gives you a quick look a full range of link analysis, including a look at the most impactful links coming your way and your most linked-to pages.

open site explorer buffer

7. Google Keyword Planner

Know what people search for

Enter a keyword or group of keywords into the tool, and Google will return all sorts of helpful stats to guide your keyword strategy: monthly search volume, competition, and even suggested terms you might not have considered.

google keyword planner

8. Google.com in an Incognito Window

Discover auto-fill opportunities

Searching Google.com in an incognito window will bring up that all-familiar list of autofill options, many of which can help guide your keyword research. The incognito ensures that any customized search data Google stores when you’re signed in gets left out. Incognito may also be helpful to see where you truly rank on a results page for a certain term.

social media search Google

9. Google Trends

Changes in search volume for key terms

A quick browse or search through Google Trends can show you the hockey-stick rise of potential terms and SEO opportunities for your content.

google trends schedule social media

10. QuickSprout Website Analyzer

Full analysis of your website

The QuickSprout tool does a comprehensive look at just about everything: SEO optimization, speed, tags, keywords, social, links, and even competitor comparisons.

quicksprout tool

11. Schema Creator

Uber-customize the way your search results appear

Create custom code so that your reviews, events, organizations, and people are displayed the way you want on search pages. Once you’ve created your schema code, copy and paste to your website, or try the free WordPress plugin for an even easier implementation.

Here’s an example of schema in action:

 

12. SimilarWeb

View site stats for any domain

Use this tool to compare traffic between two websites, a helpful tool for competitor research.

 

13. SERPs Rank Checker

See where your site ranks for certain terms

You can run Rank Checker one of two ways: Input your keyword and your website and see where you land, or leave the website field blank to view the top-to-bottom list of results for a keyword.

14. XML Sitemaps

Build a sitemap

Simply enter your site’s URL and some optional parameters, and XML Sitemaps will create a sitemap that you can upload to Google Webmaster Tools.

15. Browseo

See your website the way a search engine sees it

Enter your site, and this tool will strip out everything but the guts, revealing your website the way search spiders see it. This particular view can be helpful to see the hierarchy you’ve given particular elements (maybe without realizing it!).

16. SEO Site Checkup

Audit and score for your website

Site Checkup runs through a fast audit of your site, checking for proper tags and surfacing any errors that might come up.

17. Searchmetrics Website Analyzer

Performance dashboard for search and social rankings 

The free version of the Searchmetrics report shows you a taste of how your website ranks in search and social, along with a preview of top terms.

18. Find Broken Links

Discover errors on your site

The link report from Ninja Internet Marketers combs through your whole site and highlights a number of link insights, including the internal and external links that need fixing.

19. Ahrefs’ Site Explorer and Backlink Checker

Complete overview of your website, pages, and links

A free (and substantial) sampling of what ahrefs offers, the dashboards for referring pages and inbound links are rich and informative.

20. Copyscape

Check for duplicate content

Enter a URL for a blogpost or website, and Copyscape can tell you where else that content exists online. You might find results that you’ll need to follow-up with to help get your SEO in order.

21. Moz toolbar

I’ve shied away from referencing any toolbars thus far, but the Moz toolbar is just too good to pass up. Once installed, the Moz toolbar can show you SEO insights from within Google search results pages and at any particular website.

2. Robots.txt Generator

Robots.txt files let the web robots know what to do with a website’s pages. When a page is disallowed in robots.txt, that’s instructions telling the robots to completely skip over those web pages. There are some exceptions in which case a robots.txt might be ignored, most notably malware robots that are looking for security issues.

23. Structured Data Testing Tool

Structured data helps to provide context to the information on your page. This tool from Google uses live data to validate the structured data for any web page, or you can copy/paste code to test it.

24. Microsoft Free SEO Toolkit

The Microsoft SEO Toolkit combines quite a few different tools into one. Used together, it can analyze your site and provide recommendations on how to make your site’s content more SEO-friendly, including tweaks to your sitemap and robots.txt. Sorry to all of the Apple folks, this one seems to be Windows-only!

Further resources

Putting together a list of free SEO tools can be a daunting task. There are hundreds out there! I aimed to grab the ones that we’ve found valuable here at Sunny Rabius Sunny and the ones you can use via the web within minutes to get some amazing insights.

 

Use Aluminium Foil to improve Wifi

This Simple Hack Using Aluminium Foil Could Improve Your Home Wi-Fi

Scientists have discovered a simple, low-cost method for boosting the strength of Wi-Fi signals inside your home, and it relies on a household staple almost everybody keeps on hand in their kitchen: aluminium foil.

A reflector shield

By using a reflector shield of aluminium foil as a ‘virtual wall’ positioned behind your Wi-Fi router, the team says it’s possible to help shape the flow of indoor wireless signals, potentially giving your home network greater coverage and speeds.

“Through this single solution, we address a number of challenges that plague wireless users,” says computer scientist Xia Zhou from Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire.

“Not only do we strengthen wireless signals, we make those same signals more secure.”

Inspired by a DIY hack where people use aluminium soft-drink cans to try to boost their Wi-Fi, the researchers wanted to investigate if there was a way of using the same idea to more optimally direct wireless signals from a router.

Aluminium from an empty drink can to boost Wi-fi

While there’s definitely anecdotal evidence that using the aluminium from an empty drink can, can help boost your Wi-Fi, the shortcoming of the technique is that you end up with a curved, generic panel as your reflector.

Since the layout of everybody’s home is different, just putting up a can shaped like a kind of radar dish and hoping for the best isn’t very scientific – it doesn’t give you much control over where the aluminium directs the wireless signals.

To improve upon the idea, Zhou’s team came up with what it calls WiPrint: a system that analyses the internal layout of your home, mapping portions of it where you’d like to see your Wi-Fi signal boosted, along with specifying areas where you don’t really need a strong connection.

With those inputs, WiPrint’s algorithm is able to calculate the optimised shape for a signal reflector to place beside your Wi-Fi router, which can then be 3D-printed in plastic, and covered in aluminium foil.

Best of all, the whole process only takes about 23 minutes to generate a functional reflector model, and the only costs involved relate to then getting the frame 3D-printed.

“With a simple investment of about US$35 and specifying coverage requirements, a wireless reflector can be custom-built to outperform antennae that cost thousands of dollars,” says Zhou.

In testing, the team’s system was able to increase wireless signals by up to 55.1 percent in areas where a boost was sought, and also reduce them by up to 63.3 percent in areas where they weren’t wanted.

 

The findings were presented at the Association for Computing Machinery’s BuildSys 2017 conference in the Netherlands last week.

Maths Problem that you cannot solve

6 Extremely Simple Maths Problems That No One Can Solve

We all know that maths is really hard. So hard, in fact, that there’s literally a whole Wikipedia page dedicated to unsolved mathematical problems, despite some of the greatest minds in the world working on them around the clock.

But as Avery Thompson points out at Popular Mechanics, from the outset at least, some of these problems seem surprisingly simple. So simple, in fact, that anyone with some basic maths knowledge can understand them including us. Unfortunately, it turns out that proving them is a little harder.

Inspired by Thompson’s list, we’ve come up with our own list of deceptively simple maths problems to frustrate you.

1. The Twin Prime conjecture

Prime numbers are those magical unicorns that are only divisible by themselves and 1. As far as we know, there’s an infinite number of primes, and mathematicians are working hard to constantly find the next largest prime number.

But is there an infinite amount of prime numbers pairs that differ by two, like 41 and 43? As primes get larger and larger, these twin primes are harder to find, but in theory, they should be infinite. The problem is no one’s been able to prove that as yet.

View the Problem.

2. The Moving Sofa Problem

This is something most of us have struggled with before – you’re moving into a new apartment and trying to bring your old sofa along. But, of course, you have to maneuver it around a corner before you can get comfy on it in your living room.

Rather than giving up and just buying a beanbag, at this point, mathematicians want to know: what’s the largest sofa you could possibly fit around a 90-degree corner, regardless of shape, without it bending? (Although they’re looking at the whole thing from a two-dimensional perspective.)

Thompson explains:

“The largest area that can fit around a corner is called – I kid you not – the sofa constant.

Nobody knows for sure how big it is, but we have some pretty big sofas that do work, so we know it has to be at least as big as them. We also have some sofas that don’t work, so it has to be smaller than those. Altogether, we know the sofa constant has to be between 2.2195 and 2.8284.”

View the Problem.

3. The Collatz conjecture 

The Collatz conjecture is one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems because it’s so simple, you can explain it to a primary-school-aged kid, and they’ll probably be intrigued enough to try and find the answer for themselves.

So here’s how it goes: pick a number, any number.

If it’s even, divide it by 2. If it’s odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Now repeat those steps again with your new number. Eventually, if you keep going, you’ll eventually end up at 1 every single time (try it for yourself, we’ll wait).

As simple as it sounds, it actually works. But the problem is that even though mathematicians have shown this is the case with millions of numbers, they haven’t found any numbers out there that won’t stick to the rules.

“It’s possible that there’s some really big number that goes to infinity instead, or maybe a number that gets stuck in a loop and never reaches 1,” explains Thompson. “But no one has ever been able to prove that for certain.”

View the Problem.

4. The Beal conjecture

The Beal conjecture basically goes like this…

If A+ B= Cz

And A, B, C, x, y, and z are all positive integers (whole numbers greater than 0), then A, B, and C should all have a common prime factor.

A common prime factor means that each of the numbers needs to be divisible by the same prime number. So 15, 10, and 5 all have a common prime factor of 5 (they’re all divisible by the prime number 5).

So far, so simple, and it looks like something you would have solved in high school algebra.

But here’s the problem. Mathematicians haven’t ever been able to solve the Beale conjecture, with x, y, and z all being greater than 2.

For example, let’s use our numbers with the common prime factor of 5 from before….

51 + 101 = 151

but

52 + 102 ≠ 152

There’s currently a US$1 million prize on offer for anyone who can offer a peer-reviewed proof of this conjecture… so get calculating.

View the Problem.

5. The Inscribed Square problem

This one maths requires a little drawing. On a piece of paper, draw a loop – it doesn’t have to be any set shape, just a closed loop that doesn’t cross itself.

According to the inscribed square hypothesis, inside that loop, you should be able to draw a square that has all four corners touching the loop, just like in the diagram above.

Sounds simple… but mathematically speaking, there are a whole lot of possible loop shapes out there – and it’s currently impossible to say whether a square will be able to touch all of them.

“This has already been solved for a number of other shapes, such as triangles and rectangles,” writes Thompson, “But squares are tricky, and so far a formal proof has eluded mathematicians.”

View the Problem.

6. Goldbach’s conjecture

Similar to the Twin Prime conjecture, Goldbach’s conjecture is another seemingly simple maths question about primes and is famous for how deceptively easy it is. The question here is: is every even number greater than 2 the sum of two primes?

It sounds obvious that the answer would be yes, after all, 3 + 1 = 4, 5 + 1 = 6 and so on.

But, again, no one’s been able to prove that this will always be the case, despite years of trying.

The reality is that, as we continue to calculate larger and larger numbers, we may eventually find one that isn’t the sum of two primes… or ones that defy all the rules and logic we have so far. And you can be sure mathematicians aren’t going to stop looking until they find it.

View the Problem.

12 best gadgets in the world today you must own in 2017

Here we present the best gadgets available right now in 12 key categories, to save you the hard work of doing all the research yourself. In short, if you’re starting from scratch and want the very best there is, then this is your new shopping list.

This list will only be updated when something new emerges that is capable of toppling an existing product from its perch – there may, therefore, be months when the 12 gadgets featured here don’t change.

 

1. BEST SMARTPHONE – SAMSUNG GALAXY S8

A truly sublime smartphone

REASONS TO BUY: +Brilliant display+Blazing fast performance+Dual audio

The Samsung Galaxy S8 is the best smartphone in the world right now, boasting the brilliant Infinity Edge display which occupies 84-percent of the body and cutting-edge guts. Yep, this futuristic smartphone is a looker, and instantly made its competitors look dated. It’s the next step in smartphone design.

The S8 is the complete package, as well as the amazing display and industry-leading specs, this handset also has decent battery life, an excellent camera and amazing performance. With all of that combined, you get not only the best-looking smartphone but one of the top performing smartphones in the universe. Yes, the universe!

We think the 5.8-inch S8 is perfect, but if you’re after an ever larger smartphone, Samsung also offers the Galaxy S8+, which features a massive 6.2-inch display.

2. BEST HOME AUDIO – NAIM MU-SO QB

Amazing audio quality and a stylish, compact design

REASONS TO BUY: +Looks stunning+Sounds even better+Lots of connectivity options
When undertaking an ears-on with this stunning piece of audio tech, one of the best gadgets, this thing sounds superb. Cracking as Jim Bowen would say, super, smashing, lovely, great. It [delivers] a rich, delicious, chocolatey sound with plenty of well-controlled bass and even a reasonable stab at stereo, considering the small size. All in all, there’s very little to complain about with the Qb. Given how well its £895 big bro’ did it should absolutely fly off the shelves, and it deserves to.

3. BEST TABLET – IPAD PRO 10.5

The best tablet in the world

REASONS TO BUY: +Superb screen+Powerful CPU+Can shoot 4K video
Apple has improved things in three key areas from the 9.7-inch iPad Pro this replaces – our previous king of tablets – the amount of space to work, the quality of the display, and the performance. The move to a 10.5-inch screen with a higher resolution of 2224 x 1668 adds around 20% more area while keeping the same sharp pixel density (and barely any extra size to the chassis, thanks to the new design). Items on the screen generally stay the same size as they were on the 9.7-inch model, but you have more space to play with, and it allows for bonuses such as the on-screen keyboard (and attachable Smart Keyboard) being just about full-size, which does help for typing speed. The size difference is subtle overall, but it’s instantly obvious if you work in Split View a lot.

4. BEST HEADPHONES – BOWERS & WILKINS PX

The best Bluetooth headphones, with noise-cancelling to boot

REASONS TO BUY: +Ridiculously good noise cancelling+Top battery life+Great styling

The current big battlefield in audio tech is noise-canceling, over-ear headphones. The Bose QC35, Sony 1000X (both of which have updates hitting shelves now), the excellent Beats Studio 3… they’re all fine headphones.

However, PX, the first noise-canceling Bluetooth cans from British speaker legend Bowers & Wilkins, is narrowly the best of the lot.

The sound quality, adjustable noise-canceling and battery life (20+ hours) are excellent, as is the case with all the current wave of such headphones. However, B&W’s PX adds better styling, easier-to-use controls and some motion-sensing features (pull a cup away from your ear or take the headphones off, and the music pauses) that actually work. Brilliant.

5. BEST TV – LG OLED E6 SERIES

Combining stunning contrast with an ultra-thin design and exceptional sound

REASONS TO BUY: +Amazing black levels+Stunning thin design+HDR heaven

The OLEDE6’s incredibly slim ‘picture on glass’ design technique creates simply the most gorgeous TV ever made. Each OLED pixel produces its own light and color independent of its neighbors. Unprecedentedly deep black colors sit right alongside even the brightest HDR whites without a hint of light ‘bleed’ – something just not possible with current LCD technologies. The OLED E6 series delivers levels of contrast and light control just not possible with LCD.

This works wonders for high-contrast HDR sources, as well as making today’s standard dynamic range sources look better than on any other TV. The OLEDE6’s lose some detail in very bright HDR areas and occasionally suffer fleeting color noise. They’re not cheap, either. But none of that stops them being utterly brilliant.

A sound bar attached to the bottom of the screen, meanwhile, produces sound quality that wouldn’t be out of place on an external audio system.

6. BEST SMARTWATCH – APPLE WATCH SERIES 3

Cellular connection gives the Apple Watch a new found freedom

REASONS TO BUY: +Good smartwatch battery life+Clear, bright screen

Building nicely on Series 2, Apple Watch Series 3 now features a cellular connection, allowing you to use the smartwatch free from an iPhone or WiFi network. You can even make voice calls over cellular, again, without an iPhone present.

The Apple Watch Series 3 is exactly the same size as the original, but you’ll notice a minor redesign, in that the digital crown is now colored red (for Cellular models only). While there’s also a new Rose Gold colorway, as well as a host of new Apple Watch Bands (including a few beautiful Hermés ones).

Throw in the fact that it comes running watchOS 4, with a new updated UI and faces, and it is the obvious choice for those looking for a premium smartwatch.

7. BEST TV SERVICE – SKY Q

A seamless TV experience

REASONS TO BUY: +Slick UI+Multiroom+Loads of content
“It’s futile to deny that Sky Q is brilliant. [It is] a seamless experience in an age where the connected home remains a bit of a hotchpotch. So, while it’s expensive and has quirks and missing features, Sky Q is a brilliant system that takes TV watching to another level. It also becomes very easy to use very quickly. If your main TV is in constant demand (and/or you want multiroom) and you’re happy to pay the extra to upgrade, Q is for you.”

8. BEST FITNESS WEARABLE – GARMIN FORERUNNER 935

Built for triathletes, great for any fitness freak

REASONS TO BUY: +Delivers genuinely useful info+Fully waterproof+Endlessly versatile
The pinnacle of Garmin’s many years of building fitness wearables, this is way more than a running watch. Pair it with Garmin’s smart cardio strap and it’ll tell you everything from your average pace to cadence and running oscillation.

However, it’s also 100% waterproof, and can also be used for pool and outdoor swimming and when linked to Garmin’s huge range of accessories, it becomes a wrist-mounted bike computer.

Best of all, it delivers genuinely useful metrics, with a training load calculator, a decent recovery time estimator and personalized Training Status and VO2 Max score.

9. BEST LAPTOP – HP SPECTRE 13

A Windows laptop with the sleekness of a MacBook

REASONS TO BUY: +Sleek and lightweight+Tactile keyboard+Loads of connections
HP’s most luxurious laptop borrows the Lenovo Yoga 900S’s style and the MacBook’s bag-friendly dimensions. The Spectre 13 is so thin that tapping away on its tactile keyboard almost feels like your fingers are tap-dancing on the table. Its biggest advantage over the MacBook is its Intel Core-series processor inside, which lends it the winning combination of dazzling looks and computing muscle. Packing three USB-C ports for hooking up peripherals (note that you’ll need a converter to use your old USB-A ones), the Spectre 13 doesn’t just look like a laptop from the future – it has one eye trained on it too.

10. BEST CONNECTED HOME – SONOS ONE

Like an Echo, but with way, way better sound

REASONS TO BUY: +Attractive price+Excellent audio playback+Good smart home hub
When Amazon’s Echo came out, we said, “Nice voice-controlled AI assistant with music, news-reading, shopping and smart home features, Amazon… But the sound quality could be better, no?”

Sonos obviously read our review as it has incorporated Echo’s tech into its latest multi-room speaker. The result: an Echo but with way, way better sound. Sonos 1 would be a really good speaker even without the Alexa stuff. With it, for about £200, the purchase is almost a no-brainer. No wonder Currys has it pegged as its predicted number one money-spinner this Christmas.

11. BEST CAMERA – NIKON D850

The best camera money can buy right now

REASONS TO BUY: +45.4-megapixels!+Tasty 4K video capabilities+Top build quality
Simply put, if money is no object and you are looking for the best camera money can buy right now then you need to go and ppick upNikon’s mental-good D850 DSLR. It comes packing an outrageous 45.5MP full-frame sensor, 153-point AF system, 3.2-inch tilting touchscreen, and 9fps burst shooting speed. As you would expect, the image quality is stunning, no matter if you are shooting wild landscapes or intimate portraits.

12. BEST AUTOMOTIVE – LAND ROVER DISCOVERY

The ultimate lifestyle accessory

REASONS TO BUY: +Amazing versatility+Intuitive infotainment system+Semi-autonomous driving
We think Land Rover’s Discovery is the ultimate lifestyle accessory. It’s equally at home traveling in a convoy across the desert as it is dropping the kids off at school. Nothing can faze the Discovery, and that’s mostly down to the smart off-roading tech Land Rover has spent years developing. The updated model also features a raft of upgraded tech inside the cabin, with semi-autonomous driving, an intuitive infotainment system, and nifty features such as the ability to fold and unfold seats with a smartphone app. Simply put, one of the world’s most capable cars is now more luxurious, connected, and easier to live with. We think it looks great as well.
Snatoms Expansion Kit Box23

Snatoms Expansion Kit: For those who study CHEMISTRY

Snatoms expansion kit includes 12 carbon, 12 oxygen, 26 hydrogen, 4 nitrogen, 2 sulfur, 2 phosphorous, and 4 chlorine atoms plus 6 double bonds or 4 triple bonds.

What is Snatoms Expansion Kit

Regular price$99.00

Really want to make some molecules?! The expansion kit includes 12 carbon, 12 oxygen, 26 hydrogen, 4 nitrogen, 2 sulfur, 2 phosphorous, and 4 chlorine atoms plus 6 double bonds or 4 triple bonds. This is our best value kit.

International Customers: We’ll do our best to make sure your Snatoms get to you as quickly as possible, but shipment outside of the United States can sometimes take a month or more. Please reach out to snatomskickstarter@gmail.com if concerned about the status of your shipment.

Not sure which kit is right for you? Watch the video below to learn the differences.

 

Myth: Stress Causes Hair to Turn Gray

Stress can turn hair grey.  And this is a Myth.

Does Stress Cause Hair to Turn Gray?

Greying is largely determined by genes. Stress may cause hair to turn grey early, perhaps from increased oxidation, but studies are lacking. Stress has been shown to cause hair loss and other problems, but a direct link between greying (especially in the short term) and stress is yet to be found.

Why Don’t We Know if Stress Turns Hair Grey?

Despite many studies linking grey hair with negative behaviors like smoking, stress-related triggers are near impossible to study (due to ethics of inducing high levels of stress in a controlled setting). Given this, and other biological reasons, the exact science behind the link between stress and early greying is still unknown. Below what we look at what we do know about hair pigmentation, greying, and stress. [1]

Why does our hair turn grey? – A Week in Science. This video gives a solid overview of how hair pigmentation works.

TIP: Does stress make you age quicker or go grey quicker? Very likely, just look at any president. Can it make you go grey overnight, likely not, although many people report yes.

Does Stress Cause Hair to Turn Gray Overnight?

Stress can’t cause hair to turn grey overnight because hair is pigmented in the follicle, and it takes three to nine months for that hair to go from follicle to the hair on top of your head. Prolonged stress may cause hair to gray quickly, but we would need to go back three to nine months to link an event to a current hair color (part of what makes studying this tricky).

What Can Cause Hair to Change Colors?

Outside of going to the salon or hair being bleached by the sun, natural pigmentation (related to processes like aging) is the only known cause of hair coloring.[2]

Do Free Radicals Cause Hair to Grey?

Although it may be theoretically possible for stress to unleash swarms of free radicals in the follicle that bleach the hair shaft, no cause/effect relationship has been established.[3]

How is Hair Color is Made in the Follicle? – Technical

Hair color is made in the follicle by long-lived epidermal cells called keratinocytes and colored by relatively short-lived melanocytes. The hair on your head does not turn gray naturally unless the melanocyte cells, which produce the color pigments eumelanin (dark brown or black) and pheomelanin (yellow or red), are depleted by your genetic makeup.

When their melanin stops going to your keratinocytes, the pigment that goes into coloring your hair is reduced, and either gray or white hair grows instead of colored hair.[4]

What Causes Hair to Turn Gray?

If you have ever colored your hair, you know that you can use chemicals to remove melanin from hair. Both bleach and ionizing radiation can change hair color quickly.[5] Sudden hair loss can be caused by certain drugs such as those used in chemotherapy and some medical conditions. It is possible that, if lots of hair is lost for some reason, the remaining hair will be non-pigmented or lightly pigmented. Gray hair is less likely to fall out than dark hair, so sudden hair loss could conceivably result in the loss of pigmented hair, leaving only gray hair remaining.

Hair loss can be an early warning sign of about 30 diseases or can be idiopathic (occurring for no discernible reason). Some conditions, such as the autoimmune disease, diffuse alopecia areata, are known to cause sudden hair loss. The disease Vitiligo occurs when the cells that are producing melanin die and leave unpigmented or lightly pigmented patches of skin or hair.

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Is Obama Stressed Out? Why We Go Gray.

What Does Stress Do To Hair?

There is a fair amount of anecdotal evidence that people under extreme stress go gray or white quickly. There is an interesting Youtube video about Is Obama Stressed Out? Why We Go Gray, shown above. We hear stories about presidents such as President Barak Obama going gray quickly and people about to be executed such as Marie Antoinette and Sir Thomas Moore having their hair turn white overnight. [6] It is possible that stress leads to sudden hair loss or leads to autoimmune disorders, which then result in the sudden loss of pigmented hair. However, no scientific proof of this phenomena has yet to be found.

Conclusion

It is very likely that stress can turn hair grey, there are a number of obvious links, that said there has never been a definitive link. Instead greying is mostly a matter of genetics, stress may cause hair loss, or hasten the greying of someone with a genetic predisposition to it, but the science is still out on this one.

 

Citations

  1. Fact or Fiction?: Stress Causes Gray Hair” Scientificamerican.com
  2. The Effects of Stress on Your Hair WebMD Feature” Webmd.com
  3. Stress Causes Gray Hair By Coco Ballantyne on October 24, 2007” Scientificamerican.com
  4. Can Stress Cause Gray Hair?” AARP.com
  5. Can Hair Turn White Overnight?” chemistry.About.com
  6. Can hair really turn white from fright?” Nbcnews.com
Get Fair SKin in 7 days

Fair Skin in 7 Days Natural Remedies To Get Glow

Do you want a fair, flawless and smoother skin tone in just a week?

Every person wishes for a lighter skin tone than they were born with. To achieve the desired color they often turn to skin lightening creams and pills.These whitening creams are often found to contain dangerous chemicals that can cause severe rashes, uneven bleaching of the skin and can also give rise to various other skin imperfections.

Mother Nature has bestowed us with countless natural ingredients to lighten skin color safely and effectively.There are few timeless natural beauty secrets that can make your skin fairer in just 7 days.These remedies help reduces the production of melanin in the skin and helps in achieving a much fairer and brighter complexion.Just follow any 3 of these remedies regularly to get fair skin tone naturally and fast.

Natural Remedies To Get Glowing Fair Skin in a Week

Whitening Apple Cream (Instant Fairness)

Apple is a miracle fruit for the skin.The alpha hydroxy acids or AHA’s present in apples improves skin color and elasticity of the skin.Soak peeled apple slices in milk for 20 minutes and then blend to form a creamy paste.Place in the freezer for 10 minutes, and then mix a tsp of lemon juice, apply all over your face and neck.Rinse off after 15 minutes with cool water and massage an ice cube.The skin looks baby soft, smooth with a rosy white glow.Follow this for a week to get fair skin naturally.

cream-for-fairness

Chilled Orange juice (Healthy Fairness Toner)

Orange juice keeps your skin healthy and fair.You can use it as a natural fairness toner for your skin.The vitamin C and Vitamin A present in an orange juice minimized spots, pigmentation and give an evenly toned fairer complexion naturally.Take 3 tbsp of chilled orange juice, dip a small cotton wool in this and dab on the face gently.Let it sit for 5 to 7 minutes and then wash off with cold water.Repeat this for up to 7 days to get fair skin.

fairness-toner

Tomato Juice as Lightening Cleanser

Mash half-ripe tomato pulp, mix a tsp of baking soda and a tsp of honey.Mix it well.Gently rub this mixture all over your face and neck.Wash after 5 minutes.It dissolves all impurities from the skin, reduces the production of melanin in the skin, protects the skin from UV damage and gives an oil-free, noticeably light skin tone.

Papaya and Cucumber Whitening Face Pack

Place an equal amount of ripe papaya slices and cucumber slices into the blender and blend until smooth.Mix a tsp of fresh milk cream and then apply it on your face and neck.Wash off after 20 minutes.This face pack is enriched with skin whitening enzymes, healthy vitamins, and powerful antioxidants that boost collagen production in the skin treats skin imperfections like discoloration, dark marks, pigmentation and gives a clear, snow-white skin.Use this face pack regularly to get a visibly fairer skin.

how-to-fair-skin

Lemon and Aloe Vera for Instant Fair Skin

One of the easiest and simplest way to get a white glow on your face is by rubbing aloe vera-lemon ice cubes.To prepare, just dissolve 2 tbsp of aloe vera gel and 1/2 squeezed lemon juice to a half cup of water, pour into the ice-cube tray and freeze.Daily in the morning, massage this ice-cube for 2 minutes.Repeat every day for best results.This boost blood circulation in the face leaves skin fairer, amazingly refreshed and glossy.

Curd and Turmeric Fairness Mask

This is one of the best natural remedies to get fair skin instantly. The lactic acid in curd is great for whitening skin and turmeric is an anti-aging and fairness agent.Mix a tsp of turmeric, 1 tsp of honey and 3 tbsp of thick fresh curd.Keep in the refrigerator for 20 minutes and apply this cold paste to your clean face.Wash off after 15 minutes.It incredibly nourishes the skin, improves skin texture and adds a white golden glow to the skin.Use this pack every alternate day for best fairness results.

Brightening Lemon juice and Glycerin Moisturizer

In a small bowl mix a tsp of lemon juice, 2 tsp of glycerin and 1 tsp of rose water, use this lotion to moisturize your skin at night.Apply all over your face and neck.In the morning, your skin looks fresh, super-soft and glowing.Lemon juice is packed with amazing skin nutrients and antioxidants that help unveils a clearer, fairer and radiant complexion.The citric acid in lemon has a mild bleaching effect on the skin.Glycerin and rosewater tones and moisturize the skin. 

fairness-moisturizer

Exfoliate with Strawberry Fairness Scrub

Strawberry is one of the best fruits to lighten skin fast and naturally.Just mash a ripe strawberry, mix a tsp of brown sugar or white sugar and a tsp of honey.Massage it on your skin for 2 to 3 minutes.Within 3 days your skin looks naturally shiny, glowing and marble white.

strawberry-for-fair-skin

Almond and Milk Whitening & Polishing Mask

Soak few almonds in milk overnight.In the morning, grind these soaked almonds with the milk into a fine paste.Place a hot towel on your face and neck for 1 minute and then massage this almond paste.Let it sit for 5 minutes and then wash off with cool water.This mask improves the texture and color of your skin, boost your facial radiance and imparts a luminous fairer shine.Use this pack regularly if you want to get a fair skin in a week.

Skin Lightening Corn Flour & Pineapple Face Pack 

A special face pack formulated for dull, tanned skin tones.It restrains the production of melanin to help you achieve fair skin tone.The vitamin A and Vitamin C contained in pineapple juice fight the signs of aging, uneven skin tone and blemishes.To prepare this skin lightening pineapple face pack, you require 3 tbsp of fresh pineapple juice, 2 tsp of corn flour and few drops of rose water.Apply a thick coat of this paste onto your clean face and after 20 minutes wash off with cool water.

Rice powder, Banana and Milk Instant Brightening Creamy Mask

Mash a small-sized fully ripe banana using the back of a spoon.Add 2 tsp of rice powder and 4 tsp of cold milk.Mix it well and apply a thick layer on your face and neck.Wash off after 15 minutes.This face pack moisturizes and conditions the skin, smooths out wrinkles, lightens dark spots, pimple marks and gives a translucent, softer and fairer skin tone.

10 Reasons Why You Should Start Your Own Business

Are you thinking of quitting your job and starting your own business thing but not sure if it’s the right decision?

Are you scared of failing? of going broke? of living uncomfortably? of disappointing your loved ones?

Are you scared that you might not be able to live up to your own expectations?

Not everyone wants to be an entrepreneur. But if you feel it in your blood and feel the itch to start your own thing, you must do it. The reward is not just the money which most early-stage entrepreneurs don’t have. In fact, most businesses fail. But why am I still encouraging you to start your own thing if you have an itch to do so? Below are the reasons why starting your own thing might be the best decision you’ll ever make in your life.

And believe me, if you’ve been pondering about doing it, you just have to do it!

1. You will delete the “what-ifs” in your life.

Most of us are passionate about something. And if we are talented enough to be good at what we’re passionate about, surely we’d want to turn that into a career. But competition might be fierce. The market might be tough. Finances might not look so bright. So, we stick ourselves to the 9-5 because it makes us feel safe and secure.

But what if you’re bored in your job? What if you’re not excited about going to work anymore? What if you’re looking forward to doing something of your passion and having freedom with your own time?

Starting your own business might sound scary but it is a sure way to get rid of what-ifs in your life especially if you’re in your 20s and don’t have a family to feed. You have nothing to lose but a whole lot to gain.

2. You will accelerate your learning curve like never before.

One of the things you will learn when starting your own business is learning. Being an employee, you learn about your role and your industry. However, being your own boss, you have to learn everything — from marketing to accounting, operations, and finance. You will have to keep up-to-date with the new technology, tools, consumer trends, and industry news. You will learn like never before. Before you know it, you will become a lifelong learner who loves the challenge of learning about something new. You will take life as a progressive journey as you do with business.

There is no better way to accelerate your learning curve like starting your own thing!

3. You will learn to be independent in your thinking and trust your instinct.

Starting your own business requires you to think on your feet a lot. Whether you start it on your own or with a business partner, you will have to make a decision without a boss or team members who are there for you bounce ideas off. Over and over, you will learn to make decisions independently and become more decisive as you grow. You will learn to trust your gut instinct because no one else knows your business like you do.

It is a wonderful feeling to feel that every decision you make is solely dependent on you. You don’t need to compromise with different opinions from your boss and your colleagues anymore. You make your own decision and you are responsible for it.

4. You will wake up every day driven and motivated to go to work.

Surely this is one of the main reasons why people start their own thing. Nothing feels as exciting as following one’s passion and dreams. You might have a few sleepless nights because reality keeps you up with excitement — thinking about different ideas and strategy, stalking your competitors, and dreaming about the possible dream-come-true. Even during down times not making any sales, you’re still motivated to go to work, fix the bugs, pump up the sales, and make it happen. Because the business is yours and yours only. You’re not working for somebody else, so work hard and make it happen. The reward will be worth it.

5. You know what it feels like to truly follow one’s passion.

Some people might never understand why some people decide to become a struggling artist instead of doing something else for a living. After starting your own business, you will understand how fulfilled it feels to actually follow your dreams and your heart. The reward is not necessarily the money. The reward is in being your own boss and in the art of creating something that you truly own and love. You will learn what it’s like to sacrifice external things that make you happy (like drinking and eating out) for things that make you happy internally (like making your business succeed).

Of course, a profitable business is what proves your capability as a businessman. However, what truly drives you is not the money; it’s the passion and fulfillment you get from following your dreams.

6. You will become more daring and fearless.

Starting one’s business can be scary for any first-time entrepreneur without wealthy parents backing them up. You have to believe in yourself and make daring decisions over and over. From deciding that you will not get a full-time job to investing in the business and making several business decisions on your own. Becoming an entrepreneur you will get rid of your self-limiting belief like never before. You will learn that nothing is to be scared of. You will learn that your comfort zone keeps expanding every time you get out of your comfort zone. You will learn to initiate contacts and approach people. You will learn to make things happen and even if you have no idea about something, you will learn about it in every way you can without a doubt and without fear. Over and over, this becomes a habit. You will have built this boldness in you and will become used to getting out of your comfort zone

7. You will become a man of actions, and not just words.

A lot of people talk the talk but don’t walk the walk. As an entrepreneur, you cannot just talk and don’t take actions. You have to keep your words and follow through. In fact, things will not happen unless you take actions. Being an entrepreneur teaches you that things don’t happen as you wish, things happen as you do. You cannot ask someone else to do it for you or expect a colleague to help. You are on your own and only actions will bring your idea to life.

8. You will realize that there are so many talented and ambitious people out there.

Being an entrepreneur can be lonely at times. But if you make friends with other entrepreneurs in your community or even around the world, you will realize that there are so many talented and ambitious people out there. You’re not alone. You’re not on your own. And these people are more than happy to share with you their experiences, advice, and recommendations.

Suddenly, the world seems not so small anymore. There is a whole world out there waiting for you to discover, to learn, and to grow. The more you get immersed in the entrepreneur’s world and interact with other entrepreneurs, the more opportunities you will spot and the more driven you will become.

9. You will never doubt yourself ever again.

Starting your own business takes guts. To be able to take a leap of faith in yourself and jump, you will have already gotten rid of your self-doubt. And in the process of working in your own business, you will become even more of a firm believer in “Whether you think you can, or think you can’t, you’re right.”

Most important of all, you will never hesitate to invest in yourself because it is the only thing that always multiplies and can never be taken away from you.

10. You will want to do it all over again.

You might have succeeded. You might have failed. But the fact that you have learned so much along the way makes it all worthwhile. Starting your own thing gives you a sense of control in your own life and joy and fulfillment in doing something that you truly love. The rush, the excitement, the fear, the tears, the sweat, and the countless nights sleeping next to your laptop – they are experiences you would never have if you haven’t started your own thing. You couldn’t have it any other way. And you’re always looking out for the right opportunity to do it all over again.

 

Quick Tips;

If you want to start your own thing but still don’t know where to start, follow these steps;

  1. Start by thinking about your true passion — what you want to wake up to do every day.
  2. Think about a killer business idea and test it with the market. Make sure there is a demand for that and who your target customer would be. Get to know them. Learn about them as much as you can.
  3. Consider the skill set that you have and that you lack. When starting your own business, be the boss in the area that you’re good at and hire someone to help you in the area that you’re weak in.
  4. Take a leap of faith in yourself and just do it. You can always get money back but you can never get your time back. So follow your dream. Don’t waste any more time. If you succeed, you will be rich and happy. If you fail, well, at least you’ll become smarter.

 

Get taller by exercise

How to Become Taller and Get Perfect Posture in 1 Week

A professor from England tested several popular techniques and managed to become 1.5 cm taller in only a week by stretching her spinal column and increasing the intervertebral disk height by 1-2 mm. Correct posture will add another inch to your height.

We would like to let you know what to do to become taller.

Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (19)

Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (18)

You actually continue to become taller even while you’re asleep. 10 minutes of lying on your back adds 5 mm of height. This happens due to the shrinking of the spine during the day and its returning to shape when you lie down. You can make this last by doing certain exercises, although remember that an adult whose growth zones have closed (>25 years old) won’t get any astonishing results.

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To become taller by riding a bike, adjust the seat so that you have to stretch your legs to reach the pedals. Don’t place it too high, though, or you can damage your joints.

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Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (14)

This is a very easy exercise. You don’t need to do chin-ups: just hang on to the bar, stay like this for as long as you can, and gradually increase the time. The exercise helps strengthen the spinal and abdominal muscles and make you become taller in a short time.

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Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (12)

In this stance, stretch your legs upward as hard as you can. It’s crucial to keep your body at a right angle and not allow your legs to fall abruptly, or you may get injured.

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Apart from being good for your spine, this exercise can also stretch your back, abs, the back of your hips, and your buttocks and make you look taller.

Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (10)

Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (9)

While bending try to keep your legs straight and touch your fingers to your toes. Start off gently, and gradually increase the number and depth of the bends. You will find it easy to increase your height within a very short time.

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Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (7)

You can jump rope, play basketball, or just jump on the spot. The exercise helps strengthen the bones and muscles, and, in time, you’ll become a little taller.

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Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (5)

This simple exercise helps strengthen the lower back while pumping your abs and buttocks.

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Get taller in 7 days Sunny Rabius Sunny (3)

Swimming tops the list of exercises that help you get taller. In the water, the load on the intervertebral disks and bones is far less, and your joints become more mobile. This makes increasing height easier.

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Some other factors influencing your height include:

  • Your diet.
  • Sound sleep.

To become taller, you should consume sufficient amounts of calcium, iron, vitamin D and other elements and vitamins that your body needs to function properly.

You should sleep on a hard surface. It is best to pick an appropriate orthopedic mattress and a pillow to match.

All these will help you grow a bit and keep your posture perfect.

28 of the best pieces of advice about life you need to remember

“Remember only enemies speak the truth. Friends and lovers lie endlessly, caught in the web of duty.” Stephen King.

Here are 28 of the best pieces of advice about life you’ll ever read and need to remember throughout life:

1. Have the courage to live a life true to yourself, not the life others expect of you.

2. Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity.

3. “There is nothing noble in being superior to your fellow man; true nobility is being superior to your former self.” Ernest Hemingway

4. Don’t make decisions when you’re angry. Don’t make promises when you’re happy.

5. “Never argue with a stupid person, they’ll drag you down to their level and beat you with experience.” Mark Twain

6. Only pack what you can carry yourself.

7. Remember you’ll always regret what you didn’t do rather than what you did.

8. “You’d worry less about what people think about you if you knew how seldom they do.” David Foster Wallace

9. If you blame it on someone else, don’t expect it to get better.

10. “You can be the ripest, juiciest peach in the world, but there will always be someone who hates peaches.” Dita von Teese

11. If the grass is greener on the other side, there’s probably more manure there.

12. Don’t give up what you want most for what you want now.

13. With regards to the opposite sex: If you look hungry, you’ll starve.

14. “Never let your sense of morals prevent you from doing what is right.” Isaac Asimov

15. Strive to be the man you want your daughter to marry.

16. “Remember only enemies speak the truth. Friends and lovers lie endlessly, caught in the web of duty.” Stephen King

17. Never forget your car keys will change your car from one tonne of inert metal into one of the most deadly killing machines that have been invented.

18. Wait 24 hours before getting mad and reacting to anything. If it doesn’t bother you in 24 hours time, it probably isn’t important enough to get mad over.

19. Never make someone a priority who only makes you an option.

20. Try not to take anything personally. No one thinks about you as much as you do.

21. “If you want to know what a man’s like, take a good look at how he treats his inferiors, not his equals.” Sirius Black

22. Figure out what you love to do, and then figure out how to get someone to pay you to do it.

23. If you treat a woman like a queen, and she treats you like a jester, your princess is in another castle.

24. Whenever something happens that makes you sad, ask yourself whether you’d still care about it when you’re ninety.

25. Be persistent. When knowledge and ability aren’t enough, be persistent.

26. “Life is scary. Get used to it. There are no magical fixes. It’s all up to you. So get up off your keister, get out of here, and go start doin’ the work. Nothing in this world that’s worth having comes easy.” Bob Kelso

27. Smart girls like to hear they’re pretty, pretty girls like to hear that they’re smart.

28. Happiness is a choice and everything else is a matter of perspective.

25 Free Basic Software Programs Windows User Must Have

As we all know, Windows is one of the most widely used operating systems. So today, I am presenting to you an exclusive list of 25+ basic software for Windows users. Let’s assume you just bought a new system or formatted your computer and if you don’t have any idea which software programs you should install on your computer, then this post is going to be a boon for you.

Don’t worry, leave the job to me. I collected a huge list of programs which are sufficient for 95% of Windows users. It took me several hours to collect them and present them to you. Hope you like it and let me know in the comments if you have any suggestions.

Also check out the 7 habits of self made millionaires

and 25 Useful Software Programs  for Windows Users

Hope you like it and let me know in the comments if you have any suggestions.

1.Good Antivirus

A good antivirus software is a must for PCs to safeguard them from harmful threats, trojans, malware, spyware etc. Below I listed some of the best antivirus programs.

Alternately, you can also use Microsoft Security Essentials that comes with an inbuilt security program for Windows.

2. Media Player Classic or Klite Codec Pack

Listening to songs and watching movies is one of the most important things we do on our PC. So we need a good media player which can play almost all formats of audio and video files. Media Player Classic is the best, SPlayer is too. VLC Media Player comes 2nd in the list.

3. Registry Cleaners/Tuneup Utilities

You need an all-in-one software which cleans registry errors and junk files from your PC and makes your PC run smooth and fast. For this, I would recommend Tuneup Utilities, Uniblue Power Suite or Ccleaner if you want a free one. I suggest you get one of those three programs and run them when you start using your PC. I guarantee you that your PC will run like a dream using these utilities.

4. Image Burner(Nero)

Nero is the best software if you want to burn any type of CD or DVD, but Nero is not free so I recommend Img Burner which is very much similar to Nero but you can get it for free.

5. Firefox and Google Chrome

These are the two leading browsers right now that I recommend you get. Google Chrome is the fastest and safest browser. It’s a good idea to have at least 2 browsers installed. Mozilla Firefox is the best browser ever made for its multi-functional use.

6. MS Office / Open Office

We can’t imagine a business without MS Office. Right from student to a businessman, it’s a must-have software, but it’s not for free so I recommend you use Open Office which is very much similar to MS office with the added bonus that it is free.

7. Adobe PDF Reader

If you want to read ebooks and pdf documents then Adobe Reader a must software for you.

8. 7 Zip

Open source Windows utility for manipulating archives. Formats 7z, ZIP, GZIP, BZIP2 and TAR are supported fully, other formats can be unpacked. It has the highest compression ratio ever.

9. Internet Download Manager

IDM is a must have software for PC as it increases our overall download speed by 5 times.

10. Utorrent

Utorrent is a lightweight and very efficient torrent client.

You can download movies free with Torrent

11.Adobe Photoshop/GIMP

Adobe Photoshop is a great software for editing photos, but it’s sadly not for free, I have an alternative for this called GIMP, which is free and very similar to Adobe Photoshop. It can also be sued to make gifs for whoever is interested.

12. Revo Uninstaller:-

Revo Uninstaller is a freeware innovative uninstall utility much faster than Windows Add/Remove applet. With its advanced and fast algorithm, Revo Uninstaller performs a scan before and after you uninstall an application. There is also IOBIT Uninstaller, which works pretty well.

13. Adobe Flash Player

This is a must software if you want to watch flash videos on your computer.

14. Malware Bytes

Malware Bytes is a tool that quarantines and removes malicious and infected files on your PC and it can optimize your PC’s performance.

15. Zone Alarm Firewall

Zone Alarm is a cutting edge firewall security option which blocks dangerous sites and downloads. Zone Alarm comes with a ‘Two-way firewall’ which keeps track of all incoming and outgoing traffic protecting you from hackers and other intruders.

16. Team Viewer

Team Viewer is the best software for remote desktop viewing.You can share your desktop from anywhere in this world with this software.

17. Notepad++

Notepad++ is a free source and one of the best text editors for several programming languages under the Windows environment.

18. Folder Lock

Folder locker allows you to store all your files with a protected password.

19. Sandboxie

This is a must-have software for virus testers. If you download any application from the internet just run it in Sandboxie to check whether it’s infected or not.

20. Keyscrambler

In this world of the internet, you can’t always know when a keylogger gets installed on your PC and makes you lose your confidential passwords. Keyscrambler software scrambles your keys and helps to stay safe even if a keylogger gets installed somehow.

21. 7 ZIP

7ZIP is a zip file manager to compress and uncompress files. Most of the times when you download a file or when you try to send a file to your friend. The file would be in the form of .zip most of the time. In such case, a ZIP manager is a must.

22. File Opener

File Opener is a software which can open different formats of files. This software can fulfill the need for 10 other programs for opening files.

23. VMWARE WORKSTATION:-

Vmware helps us in installing multiple Operating Systems over one single Operating System. Puzzled? Well, to simplify things,  Vmware allows us to run multiple Operating Systems (called slaves) on our computer. Say you are having Windows 7 installed on your computer as the main Operating System. Vmware runs as an application on Windows 7 and allows us to install other Operating Systems like Windows XP, Linux and 20 other types of Operating Systems. So, you don’t need to boot your computer to change your OS. One Vmware Workstation can accommodate 20 such OSes.

Download VMware

24. DEEP FREEZE

Sometimes, you might run any suspicious software program or might use a pen drive which has some autorun executable trojans. In such cases, you can use Deep Freeze and restart the PC once you have restarted the PC.

25. VPN

Are you banned from any forum? Try out TOR. If you want to surf anonymously on the web without displaying your real IP address, you use this VPN. There are many other proxy software programs on the web. But none of them gives total protection for your computer. Also, most of them are restricted to only browser activities.

It took 3 hours for me to collect these software programs and test them, hope that you liked this article. Thank you.

Sunny Rabius Sunny.

 

7 Secrets Of Self-Made Millionaires: [Top secret revealed]

Most millionaires aren’t born; they’re self-made. In a survey by Fidelity Investments, approximately 80% of people who have a net worth of $1 million or more did it without a trust fund or inheritance. They make money the old-fashioned way . . . they earn it.

They also have habits that help them accumulate wealth.

Your habits are the reason why you’re rich or poor

“Your habits are the reason why you’re rich or poor,” says Sunny Rabius Sunny, founder of Hailstone Media and Sunny Rabius Sunny’s LASER Targeting Matrix Theory and TG Model. In fact, it’s often two or three habits that separate the wealthy from those who are financially challenged.

Sunny Rabius Sunny has studied millionaires for years and says many of them share the same daily practices and beliefs. Here are seven habits of self-made millionaires.

Secret 1. THEY READ

Read Books Gif

Self-made millionaires are readers, and Sunny Rabius Sunny says this is the number one habit to adopt if you want to become wealthy. 85% of millionaires read two or more books a month, and they choose books that help them grow, including topics like careers, biographies of successful people, self-help, health, current events, psychology, and leadership.

“The key to success in life is growing your knowledge base and skills,” says Sunny Rabius Sunny. “Devote 30 minutes or more each day to learning by reading books. If you do, it will set you apart from the competition, as most people do not read.”

Get the books by knocking Sunny Rabius Sunny at messenger.

Secret 2. THEY PURSUE THINGS THAT INTEREST THEM

Pursue gif

People often enter careers for the stability factor, but wealthy people pursue their interests. They put their ladder on their own wall. When you’re passionate about what you’re doing, you work harder.

Secret 3. THEY FIND A MENTOR

Mentor Gif

93 percent of self-made millionaires attribute their wealth to having mentors.

Finding a successful mentor in life is one of the least painful ways to become rich,” says Sunny Rabius Sunny. “It can put you on the fast track to success.”

There are five types of success mentors:

  1. Parents. Parenting is very important when it comes to being a millionaire. Parents are your first mentors. If they teach children good daily success habits, they’ll struggle less in life.
  2. Teachers. Teachers can reinforce the mentoring children receive at home from their parents or step in to provide the success mentoring absent at home.
  3. Career Mentors. Finding a mentor at work you admire, trust, and respect can lead to success in life. Choose someone at least two levels above your rank.
  4. Book Mentors. Mentors don’t have to be real relationships. Sometimes the best sources are found in books, particularly in books about successful people, says Sunny Rabius Sunny.
  5. Yourself. Also called “the school of hard knocks,” you can mentor yourself by learning from your own mistakes. “This is the hard path to success because those mistakes and failures carry significant costs in both time and money,” says Sunny Rabius Sunny. “But this is also the most powerful type of mentoring you can get because the lessons you learn are infused with intense emotion and never forgotten.”

Secret 4. THEY USE DREAMS TO SET GOALS

Mentor

Before millionaires identify goals, they do “dream setting”–they write down what their ideal life would look like, then use this script to create a bullet-point list of dreams. Goals are then built around each dream. Think of dreams as a ladder, and the rungs are your goals. Ask yourself, ‘What would I need to do in order for each wish or dream to come true? Am I capable of performing those activities? And do I have the necessary skills and knowledge? Then take action.”

Secret 5. THEY WRITE TO-DO LISTS

TO do gif

 

Goals are only goals when they have two things: 100% achievability and physical activity. Millionaires break down goals into physical action steps that make up their to-do list, and many have lists that follow a habit.

Millionaires process success.

When you create processes, you don’t have to think, which takes energy and contributes to decision fatigue. Habits are valuable because they brain fuel that can be used doing something else.

Secret 6. THEY CREATE MULTIPLE STREAMS OF INCOME

Income gif

Self-made millionaires do not rely on only a single source of income. Instead, they develop multiple streams, and most have at least three.

Sixty-five percent had three or more streams of income that they created over time.

Diversifying your sources of income allows you to weather the economic downturns that always occur in life.

Revenue streams include real estate rentals, stock market investments, annuities, private equity investments, part ownership inside businesses, ancillary products, or services, and royalties.

Secret 7. THEY AVOID TIME WASTERS

avoiding time waste GIF

Millionaires believe money can be recouped, but the bigger risk is wasting time.

“When we invest our time in anything, it’s lost forever,” says Sunny Rabius Sunny. “Yet, because we are all given what seems to be an abundance of time, it has very little value to us.”

Sixty-seven percent of the self-made millionaires watch less than an hour of TV each day, and 63% spent less than an hour a day on the Internet in activities such as Facebook or watching YouTube videos.

This freed up time for them to pursue their dreams, goals, read, learn, exercise, volunteer, and network.

41 Free Bangladesh Based Marketing Tools to set sales on fire

[dropcap]W[/dropcap]hat tools do you use to get your online marketing work done?
Can you do all the same work of a digital marketer, and do it for free?

The list of tools you use—often referred to as a marketing stack—probably covers a variety of different uses and needs, everything from social media marketing to content to email and lots more.

 

Is it possible to have all these great tools without paying a cent?

It was a fun challenge to come up with a way to build a $0 marketing stack, to find free alternatives to popular paid tools and services. I’m grateful for all the amazing companies out there that offer such value for so little. Here’s the list I came up with for free alternatives to paid tools. I’d love to know what you think!

[tie_full_img][/tie_full_img]

 

What’s in the stack?

The 41 Free Marketing Tools $0 Marketing Stack

Free Alternatives to Paid Tools by Sunny Rabius Sunny

For a quick overview, here are the tools I found that seemed to be great, free options for some popular paid services.

  1. Buffer
  2. Canva
  3. Google Analytics
  4. Hotjar
  5. Simply Measured
  6. Open Site Explorer
  7. Charlie
  8. HubSpot Marketing Free
  9. WordPress
  10. Crowdfire
  11. Medium
  12. Wistia
  13. SumoMe
  14. Segment
  15. Peek
  16. Google Scholar
  17. Google Trends
  18. Blog Topic Generator
  19. Content Idea Generator
  20. Readability
  21. Hemingway
  22. Onpage Optimization Tool
  23. After the Deadline
  24. Readability Test Tool
  25. Save Publishing
  26. Followerwonk
  27. Latest.is
  28. Tweriod
  29. Must Be Present
  30. Conversation Score
  31. Wolfram Alpha Facebook report
  32. LikeAlyzer
  33. Fanpage Karma
  34. Facebook Page Barometer
  35. Quicksprout
  36. Website Grader
  37. SharedCount
  38. Newsle
  39. Rapportive
  40. MentionMapp
  41. Down For Everyone Or Just Me?

 

1. Social Media Scheduling: Buffer

Great, paid options if you can swing it: Sprout SocialMeetEdgar

Perhaps our best time-saving tip for social media marketing is scheduling posts ahead of time for your social profiles. You can batch the social media marketing process: Do all your curating and composing all in one go, then spread those updates out across the next day or week.

How we use Buffer: The forever free plan at Buffer lets you connect a profile from each network (one from Facebook, one from Twitter, etc.) and to schedule ahead 10 posts for each network. If you share three posts per day, that means you can stay three days ahead all the time.

We’ve found a lot of value in the hand-picked content suggestions (thanks to Courtney who finds all that great content!), which are easy to read then add.

Also free:

  • Hootsuite (free for your first 3 social profiles)

 

2. Design: Canva

Great, paid options if you can swing it: PhotoshopInDesign

Over 2 million people trust Canva to help with creating images for social media, blog posts, and practically any other use you can imagine.

How we use Canva: The optimized sizes and built-in templates make it fast and easy to create tall pictures for Pinterest, rectangular ones for Twitter, square for Facebook or Instagram, and any size in between. We find Pablo (another free alternative) to be great for Twitter-sized images of 1,024 pixels by 512 pixels, and Canva to work really well for all else.

Also free:

3. Real-time Analytics: Google Analytics

Great, paid option if you can swing it: Chartbeat

Google Analytics does pretty much everything in terms of tracking the traffic to your website. It’s a huge, monstrous amount of info, generously given away for free.

How we use Google Analytics: As a social media marketing team, we appreciate the ease with which we can see traffic from the different networks (Acquisition > Social > Network Referrals). We can check the engaged reading time by looking at Time on Page. And for the real-time stats of who’s on our site right now, we can simply click on Real-Time > Overview.

Also free:

  • Go Squared (free for the first 100 visitors and 1,000 data points)
  • MixPanel (free for 25,000 events per month)

4. Website optimization: Hotjar

Great, paid options if you can swing it: KISSmetricsCrazy Egg

Let’s say you’re curious how your visitors are actually using your website—where they click, how far they scroll, etc. Tools like Hotjar can show you exactly what your visitors are doing, via heatmaps, clickmaps, scrollmaps, and visitor recordings. Hotjar also has options to analyze your funnel and to insert messages and surveys to your visitors.

How we use Hotjar: User research can be incredibly powerful stuff. I find great value in seeing how someone interacts with blog posts. How much of the post do they read? Where do they pause? What do they click? Seeing all this information helps me design my posts in a clearer way.

Also free:

5. Reports: Simply Measured

Great, paid option if you can swing it: SumAll Reports

Simply Measured offers enterprise-level analytics and management for big brands and their social efforts. It has a wide array of free tools for the rest of us, too.

Among Simply Measured’s reports are these:

  1. Twitter Follower Report
  2. Twitter Customer Service Analysis
  3. Facebook Fan Page Report
  4. Facebook Content Analysis
  5. Facebook Competitive Analysis
  6. Facebook Insights Report
  7. Instagram User Report
  8. Social Traffic Report
  9. Traffic Source Report
  10. Google+ Page Report
  11. Vine Analysis

Phew! That’s a lot of reports!

How to use Simply Measured: Each of these reports costs no money, although Simply Measured will ask for a Twitter follow or a Facebook mention in exchange for the free report. You can save loads of time in pulling reports from this one location as you seek to gain insight on where your social media efforts have been going lately. They’ve got all six major social networks covered: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Instagram, and Pinterest.

Also free:

6. SEO: Open Site Explorer

Great, paid option if you can swing it: Moz Pro

is a great free tool for checking your domain and page authority and also for checking how many links you are getting and from which source. You can also check your competition. But the free version only gives you 3 reports per day. Signing up offers unlimited reporting on all your links, keywords and competitors.

How to use Open Site Explorer: Plug your blog’s URL into Open Site Explorer to see the high-level stats like page authority and incoming links. You can also click over to the Just-Discovered tab to see recent links and Top Pages to see which pages on your site get the most links.

Also free:

7. CRM: Charlie

Great, paid option if you can swing it: SalesForce

A lot of the best CRM tools (Customer Relationship Management) help you stay abreast of your current and future customers. Think of a futuristic address book. The best ones are loaded with features and information. Charlie is a bit of a quick-and-easy hack to get to know a person really well.

How to use Charlie: Intended as a tool to help you prep for meeting new people, Charlie gives you a full run-down of a person—social media profiles, biography, interests, big news, etc.—by looking at your upcoming calendar or running an email address. If you’re wanting info on a single person ad-hoc, simply enter their email address into Charlie, and they’ll tell you everything.

Also free:

8. Lead generation and pop up tool: HubSpot Marketing Free

HupSpot Marketing Free allows marketers to easily generate email leads from their website with a free pop up tool.

How to use HubSpot Marketing Free: You can gain a lot of great information about your leads from HubSpot Marketing Free. This pop up tool quickly gathers email addresses from your website and provides key data points like employer and which pages your leads have visited. And if you’re wondering which pages are converting at higher rates than others, it can help with that, too.

Great, paid option if you can swing it: Cirrus Insight

Also free:

9. Landing Pages: WordPress

Great, paid options if you can swing it: UnbounceLeadPages

For those who are running their website or blog via WordPress, perhaps the fastest and easiest way to set up a landing page is simply to create a new page. If you blog with WordPress, the blog content you create falls into Posts. The static content for landing pages—“Download our ebook,” “Sign up for our webinar,” etc.—can be made quite easily via Pages.

How to use WordPress: Build a new landing page in WordPress, and use this as the focal point of your social media ad campaign or your social media updates. Certain plugins like WooDojo even let you hide the content in your sidebar for particular pages, which could be a great option for minimizing the look of your page.

Also free:

  • Unbounce free plan (includes Unbounce branding)

10. Twitter management: Crowdfire

Great, paid option if you can swing it: Crowdfire premium

Twitter has been so generous to open up its app to developers to make some really great tools. Sure, you can manage your Twitter profile directly via Twitter (an always free option), or you can try out tools like Just Unfollow, which allows for bulk sorting and filtering of your followers, along with insights into the demographics of the people in your audience.

How to use Just Unfollow: One way that many experts recommend to keep your Twitter following count in line with your Twitter follower count is to routinely check to see which accounts are following you back and to remove the ones that aren’t. With Just Unfollow, you can do this quickly and easily all from one page—and even whitelist the unfollowers whom you’d like to keep following.

Also free:

11. Blogging: Medium

Great, paid options if you can swing it: Ghost

It feels a bit funny to list Medium as a tool (it’s really more of a network or social media site), but when it comes to starting a new blog as cheaply and quickly as possible, Medium can’t be beat.

How to use Medium: Many young startups kick off their blog at Medium, where they enjoy a built-in audience from the start and have networking tools to help their content spread. Plus, one of Medium’s newest features is an email newsletter where you can automatically get in touch with people who follow you by sharing your latest articles.

Also free:

12. Video: Wistia

Great, paid option if you can swing it: Wistia ProVimeo Pro

Once you’ve created an amazing video to share on social media or your website, where will you put it? The default seems to be YouTube, which is quick and easy but comes with less control and potentially some unrelated ads or suggestions. Wistia is made for marketers’ videos because the player keeps people on your page—or sends them precisely where you want them to go next.

How to use Wistia: After you’ve uploaded your video, you can hop into the settings and add things like call-to-action buttons or email capture formsat the end of the video. Wistia also makes it easy to view heatmaps and viewing trends of your videos, like how far most people get through your video, when they pause or click, etc.

Also free:

13. Share buttons: SumoMe Share

Great, paid options if you can swing it: Easy Social Share Buttons

The ubiquitous share buttons you see along the side of blog posts, many of them come from SumoMe. The any-website buttons (you don’t have to run a WordPress blog to use them) are part of the SumoMe suite of website products. If you’re okay with some SumoMe branding, you can add the buttons for free to any page and customize the networks that appear by default.

How to use SumoMe Share: SumoMe gives you a lot of control over the appearance of the share buttons, both in which buttons are displayed and where on the page they’ll sit. One of the great features also is that they look good on mobile devices, so you maintain a great way to encourage sharing no matter where your audience is reading.

Also free:

14. Analytics: Segment

Great, paid options if you can swing it: Usability Tools

I’ve heard Segment described as the one and only interface you’ll ever need for all your third-party apps. And I sure do see it recommended a lot. From what I can gather, Segment makes it easy for anyone—engineer or not—to connect new software to your website; once the Segment snippet is added, you can connect other apps like MailChimp, Google Analytics, etc. just by clicking around in your Segment dashboard. Segment handles all the visitor data for you.

How to use Segment: Rob Sobers put together a really handy guide to how he’s set up Segment for his SaaS business.

15. Testing: Peek

Great, paid options if you can swing it: OptimizelyUser Testing

When it comes to understanding how people are using your website—A/B testing, user testing, that sort of thing—there are some really fantastic paid options that can give you lots of insights. There’s also Peek, a free tool from User Testing that lets you see and hear a five-minute video of a real person using your website.

How to use Peek: For first-time insights, you may wish to have a person go to your website or blog from the home page. Later on, you might ask for someone to test out a certain flow through your website by starting someone on a landing page. The tests take about 2-3 days to complete, and you can run three Peek tests every month.

Also free:

Free Marketing Research Tools

We’ll start at the beginning: researching topics, sites and ideas.

16. Google Scholar

I don’t know why more people don’t talk about Google Scholar, but I love this tool for researching science-heavy articles and digging into emerging studies. It limits your search to articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites. Pair it with a Google Alert to get amazing research on your topics of interest delivered right to your inbox.

17. Google Trends

See what the world is searching for and how interest in concepts has changed over time with Google Trends. For example, I feel like I’m suddenly hearing about “growth hacker” and “growth hacking.” Are you, too? I input those terms into Google Trends and it looks like there is a sudden new interest in the concept.

18. Blog Topic Generator

Stumped for ideas? Give HubSpot’s Blog Topic Generator a few nouns that describe your content areas and it’ll spit out a week’s worth of post ideas.

19. Content Idea Generator

Enter a keyword for a fun, irreverent suggestion from Portent’s Content Idea Generator.

 

Free Reading and Writing Tools

These tools offer help with readability, keyword density and spelling and grammar.

20. Readability

Drag the Readability bookmarklet to your toolbar to convert any content on the web into a simple, easy-to-read format with an estimate of how long it’ll take you. Also check out the other bookmarklet options here, including one that sends longer content to your Kindle to read later.

21. Hemingway

Simple, clear writing – we all strive for it. Get a little help with Hemingway. Paste a passage into the app and you’ll get an analysis that  highlights overly dense passages, unnecessary adverbs and more.

22. Onpage Optimization Tool

This free onpage optimization tool from Internet Marketing Ninjas is a one-stop look at what’s going on a specific page of your site. Toss in a URL and see stats on keyword density, internal and external links and more.

23. After the Deadline

A Chrome extension, After the Deadline checks spelling, style, and grammar wherever you go on the web.

24. Readability Test Tool

Enter a web address or a block of text into the Readability Test Tool for an easy-to-understand analysis of your content. This tools measures a ton of different readability scores, and does a good job of explaining each one.

25. Save Publishing

Instantly find passages under 140 characters with Save Publishing, a handy bookmarklet that highlights tweetable passages on your screen. Post to Twitter with one click (or Buffer simply by highlighting a passage and clicking the Buffer extension)

26. Followerwonk

We hope you’ve already heard of Followerwonk, one of Buffer’s many partners in amazing social media data. In addition to offering lots of super useful data about timing on Twitter, Followerwonk also has some other neat Twitter features, like the ability to compare followers of different accounts like so.

27. Latest.is

It’s not breaking news. It’s not nonsense hashtags. Latest.is is an automatically generated list of interesting links on Twitter, surfaced through an algorithm that focuses on “the people that always tweet the best links – first” (no, it doesn’t tell you who they are).

28. Tweriod

Tweriod analyzes your account to show you the best times to tweet for more exposure and replies. Bonus: Once you get your peak times, you can sync your Buffer account with them!

29. Must Be Present

A free tool from Sprout Social Must Be Present calculates how often and how quickly you respond to comments and questions on Twitter (in exchange for your email address and a bit of other info).

30. Conversation Score

Discover any Facebook Page’s influence, engagement, and performance with Conversation Score.

31. Wolfram Alpha Facebook report

To analyze your own Facebook account and get lots of interesting data about your connection, the language you use, the times of day you post and more, try Wolfram Alpha’s Facebook report.

32. LikeAlyzer

LikeAlyzer provides you with recommendations and feedback on your company’s presence on Facebook based on metrics including presence, dialogue, action and information.

33. Fanpage Karma

Fanpage Karma is all about competition. Compare two fan pages by entering their names or IDs and see which ones come out on top.

34. Facebook Page Barometer

Agora Pulse’s Facebook Page Barometer keeps track of how your Facebook performance stacks up against the average performance of 6,000+ pages.

35. Quicksprout

by QuickSprout is a really comprehensive website audit, social media analysis and competitor report, all in one.

36. Website Grader

HubSpot’s Website Grader gives you the overall performance and “grade” of your website based on mobile factors, SEO, security, speed, and performance, plus tips on how to improve your website…

37. SharedCount

Want to see how your content (or anyone else’s, for that matter) has spread across the web? For sites that don’t display social media share button numbers, just paste the web address into SharedCount. Or use the multi-URL dashboard to enter lots of different web addressed and export a quick report.

38. Newsle

Got some thought leaders or industry influencers you want to keep up with? Sign into Newsle through Facebook or LinkedIn and it’ll track your Facebook friends, LinkedIn connections & email contacts and let you know when they’re in the news.

39. Rapportive

Make your email work harder for you by installing Rapportive, a Chrome extension that helps you get to know your contacts better by showing their photo, job, company, LinkedIn profile and recent tweets.

40. MentionMapp

See how any Twitter user is connected to others with MentionMapp, which makes all your connections visual and simple to understand and explore.

41. Down For Everyone Or Just Me?

Is it your Internet connection, or is your site (or someone else’s that you’re desperately trying to reach) really down? Find out with this simple website. Just enter your site:

Over to you

Which of your favorite tools would you add to this list?

Did you notice any new ones that might be worth trying?

I’d love to hear from you about the free tools you’ve found most helpful and how you’ve put them to good use. Feel free to add any thoughts at all in the comments below. I’m looking forward to chatting!

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